Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience

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Antipsychotic-induced Changes in Blood Levels of Leptin and Ghrelin in Schizophrenia: A Short-term Prospective Study

Waleed H Osman*, Nadia YS Morcos, Safeya M Effat and Naglaa S Sherif

Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a psychotic disorder with a complex pathophysiology. It requires long term treatment with antipsychotics (APs) which are associated with metabolic syndrome.

Aim of the study: To assess the effect of three widely-used APs, namely olanzapine (OLZ), quetiapine (QUET), and risperidone (RIS) on body weight, and its relation with appetite hormones, metabolic markers, and oxidative stress, in SZ AP-naïve men.

Subjects and Methods: 25 Patients were recruited and investigated in a functional follow-up analysis for 8 weeks. Critical changes in body weight as well as in leptin, ghrelin, glucose, lipid profile and oxidative stress markers were examined as a function of duration of AP exposure. Fifteen healthy men were included as controls.

Results: At baseline, there were no major differences between SZ patients and controls. Treatment with APs caused a significant increase in body weight, leptin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, and malondialdehyde, which were negatively correlated with ghrelin, HDL, and catalase. These changes were more profound in the OLZ group, but negligible in the RIS one. However, not all patients in each treatment group were affected equally.

Conclusion: The role of leptin in AP-induced weight gain is supported. However, not all patients respond to an AP similarly. Tailored SZ medications and thorough biochemical markers assessment must be incorporated in clinical treatments. Further studies with larger number of patients and longer periods of follow-up are recommended.

Published Date: 2022-01-31; Received Date: 2021-10-20