Archives of Clinical Microbiology

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Bacterial Pathogenesis: bacterial pathogens

Dr. Jasmine Rhaman*

Emerging pathogens are now considered to be a major microbiologic public health threat, and medical communities have been dealing with emerging and reemerging infectious diseases since the 1950s. This review focuses on bacterial emerging diseases and examines the factors that contributed to their emergence as well as potential obstacles in the future. We found 26 major bacterial-based emerging and recurrent infectious diseases; the majority of them came from either animals (known as zoonoses) or water sources. The following are significant contributors to the emergence of these bacterial infections: advancement of new demonstrative apparatuses, like enhancements in culture strategies, improvement of atomic procedures and execution of mass spectrometry in microbial science; increase in human bacterial pathogen exposure as a result of shifts in sociodemographics and the environment; and the emergence of more lethal bacterial strains as well as opportunistic infections, particularly affecting populations with compromised immune systems. It is difficult to precisely define their implications for human disease and necessitates the use of experimental models and the comprehensive integration of microbiological, clinical, and epidemiologic aspects. To better comprehend the clinical significance of these emerging waterborne and zoonotic diseases, it is urgent to allocate financial resources for their collection. At least fifty new infectious agents have been identified in the last 40 years; about ten percent of them are bacteria. Similar to N. mikurensis, some of these have distinct clinical signs and necessitate specific antibiotic treatments and diagnostic tools. We discuss 26 significant new bacterial pathogens that have been discovered in the last fifty years. When it caused a clinical entity that was distinct from the other species in the genus, we decided to include only new genera and species that belonged to a previously characterized genus. As of now, the list is far from complete, and not all newly discovered pathogenic species are included. For instance, only two of the typhus and six of the spotted fever groups of Rickettsia were known to be human pathogens prior to 1984. At this time, at least 25 species of the spotted fever family are known to exist, the majority of which are either highly pathogenic to humans or strongly suspect of being so. In addition, new virulent strains of previously known species have been discovered, such as the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, which in 2011 in Germany caused a large outbreak of haemolytic uremic syndrome and were linked to sprout consumption.


Disease causation; emerging bacteria; emerging infectious diseases; intracellular bacteria; Koch postulates; zoonoses

Published Date: 2023-07-28; Received Date: 2023-07-03