Muhammad Waqas, Syed Ather Enam*, Maheen Batool and Hamid Hussain Rai
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary glial neoplasm. GBM can develop both “de novo” or evolve from a previous astrocytoma, being characterized by high proliferation and infiltration into the surrounding tissue. This invasive behavior is the most contributing factor for the poor prognosis of this cancer, despite the multimodal treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Understanding and targeting the molecular mechanisms regulating glioma invasion and progression may help in identifying novel therapeutic targets for GBM treatment. This review will give an overview of some of the signaling pathways that have been shown to positively and negatively regulate GBM invasion, including the Wnt, PI3K/Akt, sonic hedgehog-GLI1 and microRNAs.