Archives of Clinical Microbiology

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Development of new anticancer virus-based treatments: A comprehensive review

Namra Ahmad, Muhammad Hamza Ashraf*, Nazim Hussain*, Muhammad Ikram Ramzan, Qandeel Bajwa, Sidra Manawar, Muhammad Rizwan Ali, Muhammad Asif Muneer, Muhammad Zafar Saleem and Syed Muhammad Asad Ali

Oncolytic virotherapy has turned into a noteworthy cancer therapeutic approach, preferentially targeting and killing cancerous cells without affecting healthy cells. Oncolytic viruses' propensity to proliferate specifically in tumor cells results in rapid cell disruption and the development of an aggressive antitumor immune reaction. The advances in molecular biology and biotechnology approaches for genetic manipulation of recombinant viruses for clinical applications have made real progress. Modifications in the genetic sequence of oncolytic viruses can enhance cell-targeting efficacy. This evolving research has resulted in improvements in the efficacy and specificity of OVs as an alternative therapeutic approach for malignant tumours, albeit with significant methodological flaws. Nevertheless, it has become obvious that oncolytic viruses alone may not be able to offer a comprehensive response for cancer treatment, necessitating the use of combinatorial techniques. Emerging multimodality treatment strategies could include oncolytic virotherapy along with other anti-tumor therapies involving chemotherapy, CAR-T cell therapies, radiotherapy, Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) and bi-specific T cell engagers. Various regulatory systems, like autophagy, assist in the anti-tumor capabilities of oncolytic viruses by boosting their anti-tumor activities through activation of oncolysis, immunogenicity and autophagic cell death. Such combinatorial therapies with oncolytic viruses could be useful for further enhancing treatment consequences as multiple component strategies can report the errors of every component. The intrinsic constraints of oncolytic viruses and other drugs against certain types of cancer can be mitigated by a sensible genetic design and a combination strategy.

Published Date: 2023-12-04; Received Date: 2023-08-11