We know remarkably little about deficits in memory impairment calculation. This study reports the neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of digital memory retrieval features in Chinese individuals with and without dyscalculia. Children with dyscalculia and control groups were tested and their event-related potentials (ERPs) were digitally recorded simultaneously with behavior measurement. Behavioral data showed that the dyscalculia group had lower hit rates and higher false rates than the control group. The EEG results showed that both groups showed significant differences in digital memory retrieval in the frontal, central, parietal and occipital regions. These results suggest that individuals with dyscalculia exhibit impaired digital memory retrieval. Extraction failure may be an important cause of calculation difficulties.