Dipali M. Patel, Sweta D. Patel, Priyanka S. Jaiswal, Kinjal J. Brahmbhatt
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an extraordinarily successful human pathogen, infecting one-third of the world’s population and causing nearly two million deaths each year. In this article, current trends in worldwide tuberculosis (TB) resistance are discussed along with pathogenesis of drug resistance, emergence of resistance, mechanism of resistance development, prevention of drug resistance and new drug development. The global TB emergency has been further exacerbated by multi drug-resistant (MDR) TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB strains that are resistant to our best antibiotics and very difficult to treat. Finally, this review briefly describes new antituberculosis drugs and the impetus for discovering new antibacterial compounds to target drug resistant M. tuberculosis and improve tuberculosis therapy.