Archives of Clinical Microbiology

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Ebola Virus Disease: New and emerging infectious diseases

Dr. Mulang Karshenas*

Human-to-human transmission fuels sporadic epidemics of severe, systemic febrile disease caused by Ebola virus strains. Even though Ebola viruses, particularly Ebola virus (EBOV), are well-known agents of viral haemorrhagic fever and there is international concern about Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks, very little is known about the human immune correlates of survival and immune memory and the pathophysiology of EVD in humans. The absence of clinical and laboratory data from previous outbreaks is probably to blame for this lack of fundamental understanding of EVD's physiological characteristics. For the first time, cuttingedge laboratory equipment has been used to evaluate clinical, epidemiological, and immunological parameters in a significant number of patients as a result of the unprecedented scale of the EVD epidemic that swept through West Africa from 2013 to 2016. Human pathophysiologic and immunologic responses to filovirus infection will be summarized in this literature review.

“An emerging disease is one that has appeared in a population for the first time, or that may have existed previously but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range,” states the World Health Organization (WHO). Emerging infections are defined as "infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased in the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future" by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These diseases, which do not discriminate based on nationality, include: new infections brought on by changes or evolution in organisms that are already present; known infections reemerging as a result of antimicrobial resistance in known agents or breakdowns in public health measures, as well as previously unrecognized infections appearing in areas undergoing ecological transformation or spreading to new geographic areas or populations.


Ebola virus genus; Ebola Viruses; Immune memory; Human transmission; Haemorrhagic fever

Published Date: 2023-02-28; Received Date: 2023-02-02