Scientists recognize that the combination of a person’s genes and environment contributes to their risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease. That is, a person might have a gene that makes them more susceptible to a certain neurodegenerative disease. But whether, when, and how severely the person is affected depends on environmental exposures throughout life.Key research challenges are identifying and measuring exposures that may have occurred before an individual is diagnosed and disentangling the effects of these exposures. Neuro degenerative diseases and brain associated diseases are major concerns among aging populations across the world. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are more prevalent neuronal diseases in aging populations. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that lead to enhancing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Likewise, Parkinson’s disease is associated with dopaminergic neuronal death and Lewy bodies formation due to the alpha-synuclein proteins activation and phosphorylation. Therapeutic approaches to treat neurodegenerative diseases are limited due to the protective nature of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) that hinders drug targeting towards neurons.