Journal of Universal Surgery

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Music, a Simple Mean to Reduce Pain and Anxiety Feeling During Varicocele Embolization

A Basile, G Zanghì, G. Failla, S Palmucci, Nunzio Maria Angelo Rinzivillo and S Cordova

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of music to reduce pain and anxiety during varicocele scleroembolization.

Material and Methods: From January 2014 to January 2015, 67 patients undergoing scleroembolization were enrolled randomly in two groups and 60 considered for statistical evaluation. The patients were randomized to hear (Group A) (n=31) or not hear (Group B) (n=36) music during the procedure. The patients were asked to rate their anxiety and pain just before the procedure and every 15 minutes ('). We used the verbally administered linear anxiety rating (VAR) to measure anxiety, and the visual analogue score (VAS) for pain. The patients were also asked to state the perceived duration of the procedure. All data were evaluated by using Mann- Whitney test.

Results: Five patients in each group were excluded for statistical evaluation. We found a statistically significant difference in anxiety between the two groups in favour of Group A in the VAR test done at 30'(P= 0.005) and 45'(P= 0.04). No statistically significant difference was noted before the procedures and at 15'. We also found a statistically significant difference in VAS again in favour of Group A, at 15'(P=0.002), 30'(P=0.01) and 45' (P=0.02). No difference was noted before the procedures. There was not enough data available for the procedures (n=2) lasting more than 60' in both groups. A statistically significant difference was also noted in the perception of procedure duration in favour of the music group (P=0.0005).

Conclusion: Our data suggest that music can be considered an effective means to reduce anxiety and pain during percutaneous varicocele scleroembolization.