Journal of Biomedical Sciences

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Prevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Women Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Nwafor Ifeanyi E and Ogbu Ogbonnaya

Background: Cytomegalovirus has been identified as the major cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates. It commonly occurs in immunocompromised and immunodepressed individuals.

Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of CMV infection amongst HIV-positive women receiving antiretroviral treatment at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA). Socio-demographic factors associated with CMV and HIV were also examined. The population of volunteers present for the study was 124 Persons.

Study Design: Blood samples were collected from the study subjects and recent infection of CMV was investigated using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA), which detects Immunoglobulin M (IgM).

Results: The result obtained indicated that 14 (11.3%) out of the 124 already confirmed HIV patients had recent/current CMV infection. Again, 18 of the patients were either pregnant or within two weeks of delivery, among which 3 (16.7%) were CMV positive. The study also showed that CMV and HIV co-infection predominates among the age group 26-30 years (15.6%), singles (13.9%), and unemployed (15.8%) of the tested population. The level of education had no effect on the rate of co-infection of CMV and HIV.

Conclusion: This study shows the rate of infection and reactivation of CMV among HIV positive patients receiving antiretroviral treatment at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. CMV infection predominates among the Single HIV-positive individuals, within the age group 26-30 years, followed by Civil Servants and the unemployed. We therefore recommend that serious and aggressive campaign be carried out in this region and elsewhere where CMV and HIV co-infection is endemic or prevalent in order to curtail the transmission of the disease and thus reduce the possible menace posed by this virus.