Archives of Clinical Microbiology

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Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM Antibodies and Associated Risks Factors in Tuberculosis Patients Admitted at the Bamenda Regional Hospital, NW Cameroon

Noubom Michel, Leonard Fonkeng Sama, Oulianovie Guessom Kamgue, Valery Pacome Tchenkam, Elvis Chongsi Wam and Tume Christopher B

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution amongst warm-blooded animals and can affect anyone in contact with the parasitic oocysts or tissue cysts. Tuberculosis (TB) and T. gondii coinfection is a serious public health problem to the health of these patients in developing countries. We determined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors among newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary TB patients.
Materials and methods: This was a cross sectional study including 158 TB patients. Laboratory analyses were based on quantification of anti T.gondii IgM and IgG antibodies test using sandwich ELISA. A questionnaire captured known risk factors for toxoplasmosis among participants. Risk factors for toxoplasmosis were analyzed in a binary logistic model. The results presented as odds ratios were used to assess association of toxoplasmosis and potential risk factors. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Result: Of the 158 participants, 87.97% [139/158] were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibodies. Eating cat meat [P=0.009, OR=4.2498, 95%CI=1.4300-11.1997] and water source [P=0.026, OR=5.4983, CI=1.2189-23.5827], were significant risk factors associated with T. gondii infection. We noted a threefold increase in the risk of toxoplasmosis among TB patients having farming as occupation.
Conclusion: The prevalence of toxoplasmosis IgM and IgG antibodies among sputum positive pulmonary TB patients in the Bamenda Regional Hospital, North West Cameroon was found to be 87.97%. The principal risk factor associated with Toxoplasma gondii among TB patients was consumption of Cat meat and untreated water sources.