Ahmed Mokhtar Abd El Azeem
Atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is a complex procedure that requires access to the left atrium and Pulmonary Vein Isolation (PVI). The results of these procedures are highly variable due to the heterogeneous nature of these veins as well as the ablation techniques. Identification of this complex anatomy and the relationship to the surrounding structures can help to increase the success of these procedures and to reduce the risk and complications of these ablation procedures. Thus, imaging techniques play an important role in procedural planning. Preprocedural imaging is important to rule out thrombosis, assess the anatomy of the pulmonary veins (PVs) and left atrium (LA), and evaluate the extent of underlying arrhythmic substrate. Integration of imaging with ablation navigation systems can increase the efficacy and safety of catheter ablation as well as decrease fluoroscopy time. Postoperative imaging techniques are useful to detect complications. This paper briefly reviews the different imaging tools for ablation of AF.