Health Systems and Policy Research

  • ISSN: 2254-9137
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Mini Review - (2022) Volume 9, Issue 8

Bridging the Gap between Policy for Infectious Diseases and Otologic Public Health Policies

Vivek Goel**
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark
*Correspondence: Vivek Goel*, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark, Email:

Received: 01-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. Iphspr- 22-13036; Editor assigned: 05-Aug-2022, Pre QC No. Iphspr- 22-13036; Reviewed: 19-Aug-2022, QC No. Iphspr- 22-13036; Revised: 23-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. Iphspr- 22-13036 (R); Published: 31-Aug-2022, DOI: 10.36648/2254-9137.22.9.143


There is a well-known knowledge-practice gap in public health. It has also been underlined how crucial it is to build effective health promotion strategies using a variety of sources of evidence. The effectiveness of health promotion initiatives is, however, constrained since in reality, intervention decisions are frequently focused on anticipated short-term possibilities rather than the most efficient methods. This article focuses on the enablers and impediments to the use of evidence in designing physical activity policies that improve health. 86 significant stakeholders from six EU nations were interviewed using a similar topic guide to gather data. A map of facilitators and barriers was created using content analysis and concept mapping. We analyse the policy context in each nation as well as the barriers and facilitators that the majority of stakeholders encounter.


Health systems financing; Human health right; Health care


Policies are made in response to an outbreak of a novel infectious disease under time pressure and uncertainty, which can hinder the ability to control the outbreak and have unexpected repercussions, such as a loss of public confidence. The H1N1 pandemic brought to light difficulties in making public health decisions in times of emergency [1]. To better the reaction to upcoming emergencies, it is crucial to comprehend this process in order to identify obstacles and reversible factors [2]. With an emphasis on the use of evidence for public health decisions, the study's goal is to evaluate the H1N1 pandemic decision-making process in Canada [3]. We looked at four hotly contested pandemic policies using semi-structured key informant interviews performed after the outbreak and a document analysis: pregnant women's usage of adjuvanted vaccines and vaccination priority it is a qualitative study that employs a dialectical approach and comparative descriptive methodology. The comparative method, which allows for the inclusion of historical, political-administrative, and cultural variables, was chosen since a study involving two scenarios with distinct and similar aspects calls for data processing in this manner [4]. Because these are not and cannot be isolated or independent facts but rather a part of a complex whole where each interacts with the other and is dependent upon it, they must be analysed in the context of the dialectic. It is widely known that the biggest and most equitable population health gains are likely to be achieved when solid evidence is used to guide public health policy [5]. Growing attention to evidence-informed public health, wherein in addition to various research evidence sources contextual elements also play a significant part in the decision-making process, has many direct and indirect advantages [6]. Access to more and better quality information on what works, a greater chance of successful programmes and policies being enacted, increased productivity among the workforce, and more effective use of resources are a few of these. Nevertheless, in practise, decision-making about interventions is frequently based on perceived short-term possibilities rather than methodical planning and evaluation of the most effective ways, which leads to a slow adoption of research evidence in practise [7]. States in Brazil were categorised based on their corresponding IDH scores. Calculations were made to determine the proportion of each state's population to the total population of the nation as well as the proportion of hospitalizations due to ear diseases (SIH) in each state relative to its overall population. Each state's hospital admissions and IDH values were associated with one another. States in Brazil were categorised based on their corresponding IDH scores [8]. Both the percentage of each state's population relative to the overall population of the nation and the proportion of each state's hospital admissions attributable to ear diseases were computed [9]. Each state's hospital admissions and IDH values were associated with one another. Given that they are given a privileged position for it, both nations concur on the significance of health professionals in recognising and combating gender violence [10].


Since they can recognise and address social and health issues, nurses are said to be in a privileged position [11]. In Spain, it is possible during a routine pregnancy, in collaboration with obstetricians, and coincides with Brazilian primary care guidelines; families in the basic health zone are met, and abused women are admitted for treatment of the physical harm caused by such violence as well as a variety of psychosomatic symptoms. Additionally, in order to provide women with a complete approach, the health systems of Spain and Brazil highlight the significance of health professionals collaborating across disciplines [12]. Additionally, it is important for the many organisations addressing gender violence to work together to ensure that women's needs are met throughout the entire process of finding a solution to the violence issue [13]. Brazilian procedures place a strong focus on coordination, which means the nurse is in charge of directing and referring the affected lady to the appropriate institutions and healthcare providers [14]. In contrast to Brazil, Spain has a national health performance policy that sets the rules to follow in the face of gender violence, but the specific activities and nursing-related actions are not coordinated. Contrarily, in Brazil, the protocol "Agency à mule em stucco de violence" specifies the precise nursing tasks and procedures, but only for a certain kind of violence. The nursing consultation in primary care is emphasised in the regulations that are in place in Brazil and Spain as a key venue for preventing and resolving gender violence. In order to prevent and solve the problems in Spain, it also exhorts the nurse to use birth control during pregnancy. It also emphasises the importance of continuing health professionals' training on gender violence, the need for multidisciplinary among professionals to address these women holistically, and the existence of a coordinated network between the various institutions already in place for addressing gender violence, where the nurse can assist affected women according to their needs. This analysis demonstrates the successes of policies, initiatives, and nursing care with regard to women. However, instances of gender abuse are frequently missed and only addressed physically. 14% of research takes years to be put into practise. More recent findings reveal that the absorption of evidence has not changed significantly since then, especially in clinical practise, which is intended to be more evidence-oriented. This suggests that the gap between evidence and practise has not narrowed significantly. When considering the great availability of research evidence, the utilisation of research evidence in public health policy is typically less than anticipated. Although research on effective health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies and interventions is available, it doesn't seem to be being exploited to its full potential to guide the formulation of health-related policies. When implemented, there are numerous barriers to adopting evidence-based policy decisions that lead to less than ideal health outcomes. Literature demonstrates that certain circumstances, traditions, and political objectives Iterative procedures were used to analyse the data for thematic content under the direction of Lomas' policy decision-making framework and suggestive coding. We analysed 76 pandemic policy documents and conducted interviews with 40 public health professionals and scientific experts across Canada. Our investigation showed that pre-planning for a pandemic led to strong beliefs that influenced decision-making. Existing ideological attitudes on evidence had a significant impact on how information was employed, resulting in varying interpretations of the same sources of evidence. Participants acknowledged that the functions of scientific evidence in respect to contextual elements are not explicitly stated in current models for public health decision-making. Conflict avoidance theory provided an explanation for policy choices that defied the weight of the evidence. Reduced redundancy would result from the public health system's tasks and duties being more clearly defined. The precautionary principle and evidence-based paradigms, along with multiple pre-planning and ingrained assumptions, come together to create a complicated situation, making it difficult to track or justify the decision-making process using a simple set of criteria. The benefits of pre-planned strategies include defining responsibility and strategy in times of ambiguity.


To make sure that plans do not limit policy possibilities, attention must be used when pre-planned approaches are in place. We contend that pandemic plans should be created and implemented in a way that allows for flexible responses to suit a changing environment. This entails performing a variety of sensitivity studies and reducing situations based on specific assumptions. A first modelling research for Expert predicted the effect on TB-associated morbidity and death, as well as cost-effectiveness, in five southern African nations. 16 Because there are similar epidemics in all five of the nations studied and there is already data that is reported at the national level, the authors of this study used a regional strategy and were able to employ a single model framework. A sub-national model might have been constrained by the amount of data available or the generalizability of the model, whereas a global model would probably have required higher model complexity. The authors' primary goal was to publish their findings in the scientific literature, but the concept has since been applied to other locations and discussed at the national level. Evaluate adherence. Subjects were divided into subgroups with low, moderate, and high degrees of adhesion. The results showed that moderate adherence lowered the risk of breast cancer by 15%, moderate adherence by 9% and high adherence by more than 15%. At the 0.05 level, this risk reduction was statistically significant. So it makes sense to draw the conclusion that the study demonstrated a dose response in risk reduction in line with the degree of behaviour change.



Conflict of Interest



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Citation: Vivek Goel (2022) Bridging the Gap between Policy for Infectious Diseases and Otologic Public Health Policies. Health Sys Policy Res Vol. 09 No. Issue 08:137