Flyer

Journal of Biomedical Sciences

  • ISSN: 2254-609X
  • Journal h-index: 14
  • Journal CiteScore: 5.48
  • Average acceptance to publication time (5-7 days)
  • Average article processing time (30-45 days) Less than 5 volumes 30 days
    8 - 9 volumes 40 days
    10 and more volumes 45 days
20+ Million Readerbase
Indexed In
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • Google Scholar
  • Secret Search Engine Labs
Share This Page

Mini Review - (2022) Volume 11, Issue 7

Brief Notes on Engineered Biology Goes Cell-Free

Ewen Cameron* and Zafer Canturk
 
1Department of Biological Engineering, Synthetic Biology Center, Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
 
*Correspondence: Ewen Cameron, Department of Biological Engineering, Synthetic Biology Center, Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA, Email:

Received: 01-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. Ipjbs-22-12899; Editor assigned: 04-Jul-2022, Pre QC No. Ipjbs-22-12899; Reviewed: 18-Jul-2022, QC No. Ipjbs-22-12899; Revised: 22-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. Ipjbs-22-12899; Published: 29-Jul-2022, DOI: 36648/2254-609X.11.7.72

Abstract

Without cell frameworks (CFS) have as of late advanced into key stages for manufactured science applications. Numerous manufactured science devices have generally depended on cell-based frameworks, and keeping in mind that their reception has shown extraordinary advancement, the requirements inborn to the utilization of cell has have restricted their span and degree. Without cell frameworks, which can be considered programmable fluids, have eliminated a large number of these intricacies and have achieved energizing open doors for normal plan and control of organic frameworks. Here we audit how these straightforward and available enzymatic frameworks are ready to speed up the pace of headway in manufactured science and, all the more comprehensively, biotechnology.

Keywords

Bio production; Cell frameworks; Human wellbeing

Moving Towards A New Bioengineering Platform

Since its rise, the field of manufactured science has brought about the improvement of numerous innovations that are carried out utilizing the entire cell. These have included biosensors fit for recognizing expansive scopes of analytes, frameworks that can count or perform complex rationale, motors for the bioproduction of significant products, quality circuit-driven suspension for regenerative medication, and designed CAR-T cells. Such innovations are on target to change numerous parts of current life, yet their necessity for a cell has restricted their span and extension. For instance, worries over biosafety have limited the utilization of designed cells, and the frameworks they have, to a great extent to research center settings. The self-replicability of cell-based frameworks conveys the gamble of "break" or pollution that could influence human wellbeing, food security, and the climate [1]. While the improvement of protections to forestall these kinds of occasions is a functioning area of exploration, disappointment free execution of such frameworks is certainly not an insignificant undertaking. One more significant limit of cell-based engineered science is the prerequisite for difficult hereditary encoding of its plan highlights into a living cell, which can restrict its usefulness and fundamentally delayed down plan fabricate test cycles. In cell-based frameworks, hereditary guidelines frequently should be gathered into a vector, brought into the cell, and kept up with by utilizing a selectable marker or by genomic combination. Really at that time could the directions at any point be assessed. Moreover, plans should be iteratively tried to limit cross-talk with endogenous atomic projects while adjusting between the metabolic weight on the cell have and the ideal result. Without cell frameworks offer a way to evade a significant number of these limits [2]. They were initially considered as apparatuses to work with in vitro protein amalgamation and comprise of atomic hardware separated from cells. They commonly contain proteins important for record and interpretation, and likewise can play out the major cycles of the focal creed (DNA➔RNA➔protein) free of a cell. These frameworks can be gotten from eukaryotes (e.g., vertebrates, plants, bugs, parasites) or prokaryotes (e.g., Escherichia coli, Vibrio natriegens, Bacillus subtilis) and might be ready as either decontaminated parts or semi-handled cell removes. CFS can be made sterile by means of straightforward filtration, which accommodates a biosafe design for use beyond the lab. The open idea of CFS intends that there is no actual obstruction [3] to programming and change. CFS can be expanded with proteins or little atoms that work on the exhibition of engineered quality organizations or the efficiency of responses. All the more critically, hereditarily encoded guidelines can be added straightforwardly to CFS at wanted fixations and stoichiometries utilizing direct or round designs. This implies that calculated plans can go from computational directions to synthetic blend and intensification (e.g., through PCR) to CFS without the requirement for specific markers or cell-based cloning steps. Such straightforwardness [4] considers fast prototyping of atomic apparatuses. Significantly, CFS can be freeze-dried, empowering room temperature capacity and appropriation. Freeze-dried without cell (FD-CF) frameworks can then be enacted at the period of scarcity basically by adding water. This component has been utilized to send biosafe, hereditarily encoded devices beyond the research center as diagnostics and as stages for biomanufacturing, as well as their arrangement in through and through new settings, like worldwide wellbeing and schooling.

Development of Sensors

Atomic acknowledgment underlies pretty much every organic cycle, including the nucleic corrosive base matching that gives explicit grammar to the focal doctrine. Researchers and designers have long attempted to usher these cycles into without cell in vitro conditions to comprehend and take advantage of their hidden sub-atomic components for purposes like diagnostics and recognition of particles [5]. One of the natural products from such endeavors is the polymerase chain response (PCR), which is presently a key apparatus used in most sub-atomic science labs, including those for clinical diagnostics. There is as of now a developing requirement for de-concentrated [6], convenient diagnostics that can be quickly sent in the field, for example during irresistible sickness flare-ups or for farming purposes. Nonetheless, detecting advances, for example, PCR and others have to a great extent stayed bound to research facilities in huge metropolitan places because of their prerequisite for particular hardware and faculty. The biosafe and stable nature of FD-CF frameworks offers an option atomic scene to address the neglected requirement for conveyed and minimal expense detecting. Here, the record and interpretation properties of CFS [7] can be utilized to have quality circuit-based sensors that can distinguish little particles and nucleic acids with lovely awareness and explicitness. Large numbers of the biosensors and circuits that have been produced for cell-based applications can be worked in the sans cell climate. These incorporate, among others, numerous exemplary switches, rationale entryways, negative criticism circles, transcriptional overflows and ring oscillators. This crosssimilarity among CFS and cell-based frameworks has additionally been taken advantage of for fast prototyping of administrative components that can be taken back to the cell-based climate. FDCF frameworks don't need a temperature-controlled climate and cold-fasten strategies [8] natural for some other demonstrative methodologies, as they stay dynamic for essentially a year without refrigeration, empowering room temperature capacity and circulation [46]. This, be that as it may, doesn't avoid the difficulties emerging from dealing with these atomic apparatuses in fluid stage-for example upon their resuspension beyond the lab climate. Roused by frameworks like pH paper and horizontal stream diagnostics, we installed FD-CF responses into permeable materials (e.g., paper), exhibiting that low-volume responses (1-2 μL) could promptly be accomplished inside this medium [9]. Such paper-based sans cell frameworks empowered the sending of ready engineered quality organizations beyond the research center in a contained and biosafe design interestingly. With this new ruggedized paper-based design, straightforward detecting, for example, anhydrotetracycline (ATc)- inducible articulation of GFP and mCherry was laid out [10]. Notwithstanding, to exhibit this present reality potential for this framework, a detecting stage that could be judiciously intended to distinguish an extensive variety of commonsense analytes was required. This was acknowledged with the presentation of foothold switches, another class of riboregulators, into FD-CF responses. The utilization of foothold switches, which can be intended to perceive basically any arrangement of interest, was first shown in paper-based FD-CF responses for the identification of qualities liable for anti-infection opposition and strain-explicit recognition of the Ebola infection. While the show of this detecting limit in a convenient configuration was energizing, the framework missing the mark on responsiveness important to distinguish RNA levels commonly present in understanding examples. This awareness challenge was tended to by setting an isothermal enhancement step (e.g., NASBA) in the work process upstream of the sans cell response. This superior the edge of discovery by significant degrees. Since isothermal enhancement is a groundwork coordinated process, blend with foothold based detecting brings about two grouping explicit designated spots. A chance to try out the better framework introduced itself in mid-2016 when the episode of the mosquito-borne Zika infection was accounted for in Brazil. With the better exemplification, FD-CF foothold sensors could distinguish all worldwide kinds of the Zika infection at clinically significant fixations (down to 2.8 femtomolar) from viremic plasma [11]. Additionally, fueled by the primary CRISPRbased framework in an in vitro demonstrative framework, viral genotypes could be recognized with single base pair goal (e.g., American versus African Zika strains). Most as of late the Collins bunch expanded these ideas in a masterpiece exertion that exhibited quantitative identification of ten stomach bacterial species from patient examples. This work exhibited identification at clinically significant fixations with detecting execution that planned well with equal estimations finished with RT-qPCR. It likewise displayed the capacity to recognize a poison related grouping for the finding of Clostridium difficile contaminations. Following the underlying work illustrating the potential for the FD-CF design, a collection of work resulted exhibiting numerous biosensing applications and enhancements for FDCF arrangements. In quite possibly of the earliest model Duyen. Fostered a sensor for the location of anti-toxin tainting in light of protein blend hindrance brought about by certain anti-infection agents [12]. The Freemont bunch applied their skill in CFS to foster sensors for the recognition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patient examples, exhibiting that the majority detecting atom from P. aeruginosa (3-oxo-C12-HSL) could be identified down to low nanomolar focuses. Another original methodology utilized CFS to communicate designed protein combinations containing atomic receptor ligand restricting areas for the identification of endocrine-disturbing mixtures. This work exhibited awareness in the nanomolar range, and, curiously, showed the way that CFS could work within the sight of impurities in ecological and clinical examples.

Manufacturing of Therapeutics

One more dynamic region in CFS research is the biomanufacturing of therapeutics and other protein-based reagents. Normal natural frameworks have developed a wonderful ability to incorporate different particles going from metabolites to biopolymers. Sans cell protein articulation frameworks permit the joining of such responses into a profoundly controlled process that permits creation of particles depending on the situation and in the field [13]. Our essential spotlight here will be on a subset of biopolymers, specifically helpful proteins. The continuous work in this field lays on many years of exploration that have prompted the useful and functional frameworks right now accessible. Ongoing advances in high-throughput arrangement strategies and in the improvement of frameworks that can utilize more practical energy sources have made CFS profoundly open. In the meantime, huge steps are being made towards settling different protein collapsing issues and deficiencies in post-translational alterations related with customary CFS. Ongoing advances have exhibited the potential for increasing sans cell responses, with some having shown response volumes arriving at 100 litres to 1000 litres. Sans cell articulation has been utilized as a stage for the development of many expected therapeutics, some of which have been summed up in this. Some of these items have been approved in creature models.

Layer proteins

While roughly 70% of all medications follow up on layer proteins, working with these proteins is famously troublesome because of their enhancement in hydrophobic surfaces. Cell-based articulation of layer proteins is frequently full of difficulties [14], for example, poisonousness brought about by their film consolidation or their inconsistency with the host's physiology. As of late, sans cell approaches have been utilized to handle this difficult classification of proteins, the coding successions of which include 20-30% of generally known qualities.

Macromolecular creation

Atomic examination has featured the significance of protein associations and the subsequent buildings [15] that these collaborations can create. Whether it is for the biophysical investigation of these edifices or as vehicles for new remedial conveyance (e.g., infection like frameworks for immunizations), there is a developing requirement for creating vigorous instruments focused on blend of such buildings.

Conclusion

The consolidation of sans cell frameworks with the huge range of hereditarily programmable devices is changing the manufactured science scene, making strong in vitro stages. These stages have previously started to achieve de-centralization of medical services through convenient diagnostics and medication producing.

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the Synthetic Biology Center, for providing the resources to do the research on biomedical sciences.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Keywords

Bio production; Cell frameworks; Human wellbeing

Moving Towards A New Bioengineering Platform

Since its rise, the field of manufactured science has brought about the improvement of numerous innovations that are carried out utilizing the entire cell. These have included biosensors fit for recognizing expansive scopes of analytes, frameworks that can count or perform complex rationale, motors for the bioproduction of significant products, quality circuit-driven suspension for regenerative medication, and designed CAR-T cells. Such innovations are on target to change numerous parts of current life, yet their necessity for a cell has restricted their span and extension. For instance, worries over biosafety have limited the utilization of designed cells, and the frameworks they have, to a great extent to research center settings. The self-replicability of cell-based frameworks conveys the gamble of "break" or pollution that could influence human wellbeing, food security, and the climate [1]. While the improvement of protections to forestall these kinds of occasions is a functioning area of exploration, disappointment free execution of such frameworks is certainly not an insignificant undertaking. One more significant limit of cell-based engineered science is the prerequisite for difficult hereditary encoding of its plan highlights into a living cell, which can restrict its usefulness and fundamentally delayed down plan fabricate test cycles. In cell-based frameworks, hereditary guidelines frequently should be gathered into a vector, brought into the cell, and kept up with by utilizing a selectable marker or by genomic combination. Really at that time could the directions at any point be assessed. Moreover, plans should be iteratively tried to limit cross-talk with endogenous atomic projects while adjusting between the metabolic weight on the cell have and the ideal result. Without cell frameworks offer a way to evade a significant number of these limits [2]. They were initially considered as apparatuses to work with in vitro protein amalgamation and comprise of atomic hardware separated from cells. They commonly contain proteins important for record and interpretation, and likewise can play out the major cycles of the focal creed (DNA➔RNA➔protein) free of a cell. These frameworks can be gotten from eukaryotes (e.g., vertebrates, plants, bugs, parasites) or prokaryotes (e.g., Escherichia coli, Vibrio natriegens, Bacillus subtilis) and might be ready as either decontaminated parts or semi-handled cell removes. CFS can be made sterile by means of straightforward filtration, which accommodates a biosafe design for use beyond the lab. The open idea of CFS intends that there is no actual obstruction [3] to programming and change. CFS can be expanded with proteins or little atoms that work on the exhibition of engineered quality organizations or the efficiency of responses. All the more critically, hereditarily encoded guidelines can be added straightforwardly to CFS at wanted fixations and stoichiometries utilizing direct or round designs. This implies that calculated plans can go from computational directions to synthetic blend and intensification (e.g., through PCR) to CFS without the requirement for specific markers or cell-based cloning steps. Such straightforwardness [4] considers fast prototyping of atomic apparatuses. Significantly, CFS can be freeze-dried, empowering room temperature capacity and appropriation. Freeze-dried without cell (FD-CF) frameworks can then be enacted at the period of scarcity basically by adding water. This component has been utilized to send biosafe, hereditarily encoded devices beyond the research center as diagnostics and as stages for biomanufacturing, as well as their arrangement in through and through new settings, like worldwide wellbeing and schooling.

Development of Sensors

Atomic acknowledgment underlies pretty much every organic cycle, including the nucleic corrosive base matching that gives explicit grammar to the focal doctrine. Researchers and designers have long attempted to usher these cycles into without cell in vitro conditions to comprehend and take advantage of their hidden sub-atomic components for purposes like diagnostics and recognition of particles [5]. One of the natural products from such endeavors is the polymerase chain response (PCR), which is presently a key apparatus used in most sub-atomic science labs, including those for clinical diagnostics. There is as of now a developing requirement for de-concentrated [6], convenient diagnostics that can be quickly sent in the field, for example during irresistible sickness flare-ups or for farming purposes. Nonetheless, detecting advances, for example, PCR and others have to a great extent stayed bound to research facilities in huge metropolitan places because of their prerequisite for particular hardware and faculty. The biosafe and stable nature of FD-CF frameworks offers an option atomic scene to address the neglected requirement for conveyed and minimal expense detecting. Here, the record and interpretation properties of CFS [7] can be utilized to have quality circuit-based sensors that can distinguish little particles and nucleic acids with lovely awareness and explicitness. Large numbers of the biosensors and circuits that have been produced for cell-based applications can be worked in the sans cell climate. These incorporate, among others, numerous exemplary switches, rationale entryways, negative criticism circles, transcriptional overflows and ring oscillators. This crosssimilarity among CFS and cell-based frameworks has additionally been taken advantage of for fast prototyping of administrative components that can be taken back to the cell-based climate. FDCF frameworks don't need a temperature-controlled climate and cold-fasten strategies [8] natural for some other demonstrative methodologies, as they stay dynamic for essentially a year without refrigeration, empowering room temperature capacity and circulation [46]. This, be that as it may, doesn't avoid the difficulties emerging from dealing with these atomic apparatuses in fluid stage-for example upon their resuspension beyond the lab climate. Roused by frameworks like pH paper and horizontal stream diagnostics, we installed FD-CF responses into permeable materials (e.g., paper), exhibiting that low-volume responses (1-2 μL) could promptly be accomplished inside this medium [9]. Such paper-based sans cell frameworks empowered the sending of ready engineered quality organizations beyond the research center in a contained and biosafe design interestingly. With this new ruggedized paper-based design, straightforward detecting, for example, anhydrotetracycline (ATc)- inducible articulation of GFP and mCherry was laid out [10]. Notwithstanding, to exhibit this present reality potential for this framework, a detecting stage that could be judiciously intended to distinguish an extensive variety of commonsense analytes was required. This was acknowledged with the presentation of foothold switches, another class of riboregulators, into FD-CF responses. The utilization of foothold switches, which can be intended to perceive basically any arrangement of interest, was first shown in paper-based FD-CF responses for the identification of qualities liable for anti-infection opposition and strain-explicit recognition of the Ebola infection. While the show of this detecting limit in a convenient configuration was energizing, the framework missing the mark on responsiveness important to distinguish RNA levels commonly present in understanding examples. This awareness challenge was tended to by setting an isothermal enhancement step (e.g., NASBA) in the work process upstream of the sans cell response. This superior the edge of discovery by significant degrees. Since isothermal enhancement is a groundwork coordinated process, blend with foothold based detecting brings about two grouping explicit designated spots. A chance to try out the better framework introduced itself in mid-2016 when the episode of the mosquito-borne Zika infection was accounted for in Brazil. With the better exemplification, FD-CF foothold sensors could distinguish all worldwide kinds of the Zika infection at clinically significant fixations (down to 2.8 femtomolar) from viremic plasma [11]. Additionally, fueled by the primary CRISPRbased framework in an in vitro demonstrative framework, viral genotypes could be recognized with single base pair goal (e.g., American versus African Zika strains). Most as of late the Collins bunch expanded these ideas in a masterpiece exertion that exhibited quantitative identification of ten stomach bacterial species from patient examples. This work exhibited identification at clinically significant fixations with detecting execution that planned well with equal estimations finished with RT-qPCR. It likewise displayed the capacity to recognize a poison related grouping for the finding of Clostridium difficile contaminations. Following the underlying work illustrating the potential for the FD-CF design, a collection of work resulted exhibiting numerous biosensing applications and enhancements for FDCF arrangements. In quite possibly of the earliest model Duyen. Fostered a sensor for the location of anti-toxin tainting in light of protein blend hindrance brought about by certain anti-infection agents [12]. The Freemont bunch applied their skill in CFS to foster sensors for the recognition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patient examples, exhibiting that the majority detecting atom from P. aeruginosa (3-oxo-C12-HSL) could be identified down to low nanomolar focuses. Another original methodology utilized CFS to communicate designed protein combinations containing atomic receptor ligand restricting areas for the identification of endocrine-disturbing mixtures. This work exhibited awareness in the nanomolar range, and, curiously, showed the way that CFS could work within the sight of impurities in ecological and clinical examples.

Manufacturing of Therapeutics

One more dynamic region in CFS research is the biomanufacturing of therapeutics and other protein-based reagents. Normal natural frameworks have developed a wonderful ability to incorporate different particles going from metabolites to biopolymers. Sans cell protein articulation frameworks permit the joining of such responses into a profoundly controlled process that permits creation of particles depending on the situation and in the field [13]. Our essential spotlight here will be on a subset of biopolymers, specifically helpful proteins. The continuous work in this field lays on many years of exploration that have prompted the useful and functional frameworks right now accessible. Ongoing advances in high-throughput arrangement strategies and in the improvement of frameworks that can utilize more practical energy sources have made CFS profoundly open. In the meantime, huge steps are being made towards settling different protein collapsing issues and deficiencies in post-translational alterations related with customary CFS. Ongoing advances have exhibited the potential for increasing sans cell responses, with some having shown response volumes arriving at 100 litres to 1000 litres. Sans cell articulation has been utilized as a stage for the development of many expected therapeutics, some of which have been summed up in this. Some of these items have been approved in creature models.

Layer proteins

While roughly 70% of all medications follow up on layer proteins, working with these proteins is famously troublesome because of their enhancement in hydrophobic surfaces. Cell-based articulation of layer proteins is frequently full of difficulties [14], for example, poisonousness brought about by their film consolidation or their inconsistency with the host's physiology. As of late, sans cell approaches have been utilized to handle this difficult classification of proteins, the coding successions of which include 20-30% of generally known qualities.

Macromolecular creation

Atomic examination has featured the significance of protein associations and the subsequent buildings [15] that these collaborations can create. Whether it is for the biophysical investigation of these edifices or as vehicles for new remedial conveyance (e.g., infection like frameworks for immunizations), there is a developing requirement for creating vigorous instruments focused on blend of such buildings.

Conclusion

The consolidation of sans cell frameworks with the huge range of hereditarily programmable devices is changing the manufactured science scene, making strong in vitro stages. These stages have previously started to achieve de-centralization of medical services through convenient diagnostics and medication producing.

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the Synthetic Biology Center, for providing the resources to do the research on biomedical sciences.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

REFERENCES

  1. Anderson JC, Clarke EJ, Arkin AP, Voigt CA (2006) Environmentally controlled invasion of cancer cells by engineered bacteria. JMol Biol355:619-627.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  3. Archer EJ, Robinson AB, Sel GM (2012) EngineeredE.colithat detect and respond to gut inflammation through nitric oxide sensing. ACS Synth Biol1:451-457.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  5. Bae YH, Park K (2011) Targeted drug delivery to tumors: myths, reality and possibility. JControl Release153:198.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  7. Bikard D, Euler CW, Jiang W, Nussenzweig PM, Goldberg GW, et al. (2014) Exploiting CRISPR-Cas nucleases to produce sequence-specific antimicrobials. Nat Biotechnol32:1146-1150.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  9. Blekhman R, Goodrich JK, Huang K, Sun Q, Bukowski R, et al. (2015) Host genetic variation impacts microbiome composition across human body sites. Genome Biol16:191.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  11. Bonnet J, Yin P, Ortiz ME, Subsoontorn P, Endy D (2013) Amplifying genetic logic gates. Sci340:599-603.
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  13. Borrero J, Chen Y, Dunny GM, Kaznessis YN (2015) Modified lactic acid bacteria detect and inhibit multiresistant enterococci. ACS Synth Biol4:299-306.
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  15. Brown WH, Gillum MP, Lee HY, Camporez JPG, Zhang XM, et al. (2012) Fatty acid amide hydrolase ablation promotes ectopic lipid storage and insulin resistance due to centrally mediated hypothyroidism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA109:14966-14971.
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  17. Castagliuolo I, Beggiao E, Brun P, Barzon L, Goussard S, et al. (2005) EngineeredE.colidelivers therapeutic genes to the colonic mucosa. Gene Ther 12:1070-1078.
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  19. Cerf-Bensussan N, Gaboriau-Routhiau V (2010) The immune system and the gut microbiota: friends or foes? Nat Rev Immunol 10:735-744.
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  21. Ceroni F, Algar R, Stan GB, Ellis T (2015) Quantifying cellular capacity identifies gene expression designs with reduced burden. Nat Methods 12:415-418.
  22. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  23. Chan CTY, Lee JW, Cameron DE, Bashor CJ, Collins JJ (2016) ‘Deadman’ and ‘Passcode’ microbial kill switches for bacterial containment. Nat Chem Biol 12:82-86.
  24. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  25. Chang HJ, Mayonove P, Zavala A, De Visch A, Minard P, et al. (2017) A modular receptor platform to expand the sensing repertoire of bacteria. ACS Synth Biol 7:166-175.
  26. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  27. Chapman CMC, Gibson GR, Rowland I (2011) Health benefits of probiotics: are mixtures more effective than single strains? Eur J Nutr 50:1-17.
  28. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  29. Chaudhari AS, Raghuvanshi R, Kumar GN (2017) Genetically engineeredEscherichia coliNissle 1917 synbiotic counters fructose-induced metabolic syndrome and iron deficiency. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 101:4713-4723.
  30. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref