Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Research

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Perspective - (2023) Volume 11, Issue 1

Clinical Significance of Innate immunity on SARS-CoV-2

Kristin James*
Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
*Correspondence: Kristin James, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa, Email:

Received: 04-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. IPACLR-23-13435; Editor assigned: 06-Jan-2023, Pre QC No. IPACLR-23-13435; Reviewed: 20-Jan-2023, QC No. IPACLR-23-13435; Revised: 23-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. IPACLR-23-13435; Published: 30-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.36648/2386- 5180.23.11.452


People around the world have been impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is brought on by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This has sparked an unprecedented effort from the scientific community to comprehend the biological basis of COVID19 pathophysiology. An overview of the current understanding of the innate and adaptive immune responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the immunological pathways that most likely influence the severity and mortality of the disease.


ARS-CoV-2, Immunological pathways, Mortality, Biological basis.


ARS-CoV-2, Immunological pathways, Mortality, Biological basis.


To immunity to viruses, innate immune sensing acts as the initial line of antiviral defence. Very little about the precise innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 has been known. Given the common sequence similarity across CoVs and the preserved mechanisms of innate immune signalling, SARS-CoV-2 virus-host interactions are anticipated to replicate many of those involving other CoVs. When it comes to RNA viruses like SARS-CoV-2, these pathways are started by viral single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) engaging Pattern-Recognition Receptors (PRRs) via cytosolic RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) and extracellular and endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs).Following PRR activation, cytokine production is triggered by downstream signalling pathways. Type I/III Interferons (IFNs) are thought to be the most crucial for antiviral defence among these, although other cytokines are also generated, including proinflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL- 6, and IL-18. They activate antiviral systems in target cells and strengthen the immune response when combined. IFN-I can successfully reduce CoV infection if it is detected early and is targeted appropriately [1].

Coronaviruses have developed a number of methods to block IFN-I production and signalling because these cytokines are a significant barrier to viral infection. IFN secretion is suppressed by SARS-CoV-1 both in vivo and in vitro, according to several studies. The absence of significant type I/III IFN signals from infected cell lines, native bronchial cells, and a ferret model suggests that SARS-CoV-2 likely has a similar impact. In contrast to mild or moderate instances, individuals with severe COVID-19 have noticeably diminished IFN-I signatures. CoVs have a number of evasion strategies, as is frequently the case. Viral elements interfere with each stage of the process from PRR detection and cytokine release to IFN signal transduction [2].

After activation, RLRs and TLRs trigger signalling cascades that phosphorylate transcription factors including NF- κB and the IRF family, which in turn triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines and IFN. The particular roles of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins have not been defined experimentally; however proteomic research has shown connections between viral proteins and PRR signalling cascades. Through its interaction with Tom70, SARSCoV- 2 ORF9b indirectly interacts with the signalling adaptor MAVS, supporting earlier studies that SARS-CoV-1 ORF9b inhibits MAVS signalling [3]. Additionally, the SARS-CoV-2 NSP13 and NSP15 interact with the signalling intermediate TBK1 and the activator of TBK1 and IRF3 RNF41, respectively.

Proinflammatory and antiviral responses are out of balance: When considered collectively, the variety of techniques used by pathogenic CoVs to circumvent immune detection, notably the IFN-I route, point to the crucial role that IFN-I response dysregulation plays in COVID-19 pathogenicity. According to animal models of both SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV infection, the severity of the illness is correlated with the inability to elicit an early IFN-I response. Perhaps more significantly, these models show that timing is crucial since IFN is protective early in the course of the disease but turns pathogenic later.

Prior Knowledge from Murine Coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-1, and MERS-CoV Studies of myeloid cell dysfunction in SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV can offer a crucial road map for understanding COVID-19 pathogenesis even if information on COVID-19 patients is still quickly emerging. Infection with SARS-CoV-1 causes an abnormal AM phenotype in animal models, which inhibits DC trafficking and T cell activation [4]. Furthermore, YM1+ FIZZ1+ alternative macrophages can heighten airway hypersensitivity, aggravating fibrosis linked to SARS. Furthermore, as previously mentioned, studies on the murine SARS-CoV-1 strain have shown that inflammatory monocytes-macrophages and delayed IFN-I signalling increase lung cytokine and chemokine levels, vascular leakage, and impaired antigen-specific T cell responses, all of which lead to lethal disease.

NK Cell Function is Affected by SARS-CoV-2 Infection ex vivo NK cells from COVID-19 patients' peripheral blood had decreased levels of CD107a, Ksp37, granzyme B, and granulysin intracellular expression, which suggests poor cytotoxicity as well as impaired synthesis of chemokines, IFN, and TNF. The deregulation of NK cells may be caused by a number of routes [5]. Lung NK cells do not exhibit the entrance receptor for SARS-CoV-2, ACE2, and are therefore unlikely to be directly infected by SARS-CoV-2, while influenza virus infects NK cells and causes apoptosis.


The scientific community has responded to the urgent need for fundamental science and clinical research with exceptional productivity due to the fast spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the unusual character of COVID-19. The immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections has been the subject of a sizable development of scientific knowledge in recent months. Studies on the SARSCoV- 1 and MERS-CoV coronavirus epidemics in the past have laid the groundwork for current knowledge. The immunopathologies reported in SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV infections, notably CRS, are certainly present in severe COVID-19 patients. In addition to reflecting our current knowledge that SARS-CoV-2 has a longer incubation period and higher rate of transmission than other coronaviruses, the emerging epidemiological observation that significant proportions of people are asymptomatic despite infection speaks to significant differences in the host immune response. Therefore, it is essential that immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and the mechanisms of disease generated by hyper inflammation are further understood to better define COVID-19 treatment options.


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Citation: James K (2023) Clinical Significance of Innate Immunity on SARS-CoV-2. Ann Clin Lab Res. Vol.11 No.1:452