Received date: March 01, 2018; Accepted date: March 22, 2018; Published date: March 22, 2018
Citation: Etindele Sosso FA (2018) Editor Note: Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience Volume 8, Issue 4. J Neurol Neurosci Vol.8 No.4:e007. doi:10.21767/2171-6625.1000e007
Understanding the workings of a healthy nervous system i.e., generation of thought, behavior, emotion, and regulation of the key functions of the body helps in shedding the light on the various problems that can lead to the disorders of the nervous system. Thus, in today’s scenario of ever increasing neurological problems, the importance of neurology and neuroscience cannot be undermined. Neurology and neuroscience hold the key to a healthy mind and a healthy society as a whole.
The Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience publishes cutting-edge research in neuroscience. The current issue of the Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience presents some interesting studies in the field. Sosso et al. , found that there is an interplay between the primary visual cortex and short-term plasticity. Goldstein et al. , presented a case of an extrapyramidal syndrome in the background of splenic vein thrombosis in a 44-year-old woman. Oh et al. , evaluated the trends in the age of stroke in rapidly developing urban areas. Mazumdar et al. , presented three interesting cases of gaze palsy. Abdalla et al. , evaluated the demographic features and the most common clinical presentations among the Sudanese individuals suffering from Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME). Sin  presented a variant of Lemierre's syndrome, characterized by complete thrombosis of the left jugular vein. Bahrami et al. , authored a review on Neurologic music therapy (NMT).
The electrical activity adjustments of the brain are a function of the characteristics of the initial stimulation. These adjustments are neuronal identity specific. However, the shortterm behavior of the pyramidal and inhibitory cells is still unclear. Sosso et al. , stimulated the excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in the primary visual cortex of mice using a briefly applied grating (BAG). The study findings revealed an essential stability in the firing pattern. The discharge of inhibitory interneurons before and after visual stimulation was the same. Lack of orientation in the stimuli also reduced the neuronal activity. These findings suggest an interplay between the primary visual cortex and short-term plasticity.
Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration (AHD) is an irreversible extrapyramidal syndrome that develops in the background of hepatic dysfunction. AHD may accompany advanced liver disease. Goldstein et al. , described the case of a 44-year-old woman who in addition to suffering from splenic vein thrombosis, was bleeding from the gastric fundus varices and exhibited rapidly progressive extrapyramidal symptoms. Though, severe liver dysfunction was not identified, brain imaging revealed damage to the basal ganglia. Splenic artery embolization resulted in the disappearance of the varices. The patient was started on a treatment of amantadine and low-dose clonazepam. This resulted in gradual improvement of the patient's neurologic symptoms, though imaging did reveal some residual damage to the basal ganglia.
Oh et al. , evaluated the trends in the age of stroke in rapidly developing urban areas. Towards this, 12,370 patients who were diagnosed with stroke between 1997 and 2015 were recruited. The authors assessed the variations in the mean age of stroke by gender. The analysis revealed that of the 12,370 patients, 64% suffered from ischemic stroke (IS) and 36% suffered from hemorrhagic stroke (HS). The percentage of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the young (<45), middle (45~64), and old (>64) age groups were found to be 38%, 22%, and 13%, respectively. The percentage of IS in young, middle, and old age groups were found to be 41%, 58%, and 72%, respectively. Furthermore, the stroke age increased rapidly in the developing urban areas, whereas that of HS showed a decreasing tendency.
Common etiologies affecting the pathways influencing the eye movement are: demyelinating disorders, trauma, childhood stroke (pontine infarct), mass lesions, and metabolic or mitochondrial diseases. The disorders of horizontal eye movement originating as a result of brainstem lesions can be classified into three groups: internuclear ophthalmoplegia, one-and-a-half syndrome, and lateral gaze palsy. Mazumdar et al. , have presented three interesting cases of gaze palsy.
Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) is a generalized idiopathic epilepsy that manifests in the form of myoclonic jerks that are commonly observed during early childhood. Abdalla et al. , evaluated the demographic features and the most common clinical presentations among the Sudanese JME patients. The results revealed that the mean age of individuals with JME at the time of diagnosis was 19.55 ± 8.98 years. In about 91% of the patients, myoclonic jerks were confirmed; sleep deprivation was identified to be the triggering factor for myoclonic jerks in 61.4% of the patients. Absence seizures were recorded in 77.27% of the JME patients, whereas generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures were recorded in 84.1% of the JME patients. The time elapsed between jerks and GTC was estimated at 4.35 ± 3.61 years.
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare but extremely severe illness caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum, an anaerobic bacterium. This condition typically occurs in teenagers and young adults, and usually begins as a throat infection which spreads by means of septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular and tonsillar veins. Additionally, the spread of this infection is further complicated by the movement of septic emboli to other tissues such as lungs, bones, and joints. Generally, this infection manifests in the form of pharyngotonsillitis or peritonsillar abscess, and is subsequently observed as a swelling and/or tenderness in the cervical area due to the internal jugular vein septic thrombophlebitis. Sin  presented a variant of Lemierre's syndrome, which was characterized by complete thrombosis of the left jugular vein.
Neurologic music therapy (NMT) has proved successful in patients suffering from a range of neurologic diseases. In addition to making therapy more enjoyable, blending music and virtual reality with the standard rehabilitation therapies can result in improvement in patient compliance. Listening to music is known to reduce epileptiform discharges and enhance brain plasticity; this might be the reason underlying the variations observed in the brain anatomy of musicians and non-musicians. Music therapy is known to aid the rapid and efficient recovery of post-stroke patients, when applied soon after the event. There is evidence to the effect that incorporation of music into a rehabilitation program engenders the recovery of dexterity, mood, hand function, cognitive function, spatial movement, coordination, and memory. Singing, learning the lyrics and melodic intonation therapy are also known to help in the rapid recovery of aphasic patients. The World Rehabilitation Federation recognizes NMT as an effective, evidence-based treatment modality. Bahrami et al. , have authored a review on NMT.22177