Archives of Clinical Microbiology

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Editorial - (2023) Volume 14, Issue 2

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Symptoms

Zohamn Wan*
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Researcher, Hawaii, United States
*Correspondence: Zohamn Wan, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Researcher, Hawaii, United States, Email:

Received: 02-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. Ipacm-23-13482 ; Editor assigned: 06-Feb-2023, Pre QC No. Ipacm-23-13482 ; Reviewed: 20-Feb-2023, QC No. Ipacm-23-13482 ; Revised: 22-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. Ipacm-23-13482 ; Published: 28-Feb-2023, DOI: 10.36648/1989- 8436X.


Methodical reviews with meta-analyses of experimental studies and health issues associated with mortal immunodeficiency contagion (HIV) but not acquired immunodeficiency pattern were used to evaluate the credibility and strength of substantiation.

Equipment we included methodical reviews and meta-analyses of experimental studies (cross-sectional, case-control, or retrospective and prospective cohort studies) that investigated the connection between HIV and physical health problems. Methodical reviews with meta-analyses that reported HIV data (diagnosed through tone-reports or laboratory evidence) and meta-analyses of cross-sectional or cohort studies that delved into the association of HIV with any health outgrowth (e.g. a heart condition, cancer, obesity, diabetes, or metabolic disorders). These issues had to be reported as odds rates, relative risks (RRs), hazard rates, or nonstop data (formalized, weighted, or mean difference) in studies. Any language could have been used to publish studies. Studies that dealt with HIV infection style supplements or immunosuppression were excluded. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of experimental studies. The degree of support was determined to be satisfactory, largely suggestive, weak, or no significant.


HIV infections can progress to AIDS within ten years of not receiving treatment. The idea that HIV only affects some people is a myth. If they are exposed to the virus, anyone can contract it. Coitus without the use of a condom or an examination of experimental studies [1]. The quality of the support was rated as satisfactory, largely suggestive, weak, or no significant. AIDS symptoms can be brought on by HIV infection, but many are caused by illnesses that exploit your weak immune system. Worldwide, even in resource-poor nations, the number of AIDS deaths has decreased dramatically as a result of increased access to antiviral treatments. The majority of HIV-positive people in the United States today do not develop AIDS as a result of these lifesaving treatments. HIV typically progresses to AIDS within eight to ten years if not treated [2].

Description of HIV and AIDS

Signifies the contagion of fatal immunodeficiency. HIV makes it difficult to fight off other conditions because it infects and destroys cells in your vulnerable system. Acquired immunodeficiency pattern (AIDS) can occur when HIV has oppressively weakened your vulnerable system [3].

A retrovirus is HIV because it inserts its instructions into your DNA in reverse order.

The most severe and final stage of HIV infection is AIDS. White blood cell counts are seriously low in AIDS patients, and vulnerable systems have been severely damaged. They might have new ailments that show that they have AIDS.


Even in resource-poor nations, improved antiviral treatments have significantly reduced AIDS deaths worldwide. The majority of HIV-positive people in the United States today do not develop AIDS thanks to these life-saving treatments [4]. HIV typically progresses to AIDS within eight to ten years if left untreated.

Your vulnerable system has been oppressively damaged when AIDS strikes. If you have a healthy vulnerable system, you will be more likely to develop conditions that don't typically lead to illness. These are referred to as opportunistic infections and cancers.

1. Swollen lymph glands

2. Patient white spots or unusual lesions on your lingo or in your mouth

3. Patient, unexplained fatigue

4. Weakness

5. Weight loss

6. Chills

7. Recreating fever

8. Habitual diarrhoea

9. Swollen lymph glands

10. Weight loss

11. Skin rashes or bumps

Having condom less anal or vaginal coitus, having another sexually transmitted infection (STI) like syphilis, herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and bacterial vaginitis, engaging in dangerous use of alcohol and medicines in the environment of sexual gestation, participating in defiled needles, hypes, and other edging in outfit and medicine results when edging in medicines, entering unsafe injections, blood transfusions [5,8].


Twenty of the returned 3413 studies, which covered 55 health issues, were included. There were a total of 18 743 actors, with a range of 403 to 225000000 [6,9]. 45 (81.8) of the 55 distinct issues presented summary results that were deemed to be of negligible significance. Just five issues (9.0) With P values between 10 and 3, advanced risk of breathlessness, advanced frequency of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, maternal sepsis, advanced risk of anemia, and advanced risk of all fractures among people living with HIV (PLWHIV)) showed suggestive substantiation [7,10]. Only 3 were more strongly supported by a strict P value of 10 to 6. Three issues had largely suggestive substantiation, five had suggestive substantiation, and 37 had weak substantiation, but none of the unique issues met the criteria for satisfying substantiation.


Cough, COPD, ischemic heart disease, gestational mortality, motherly sepsis, and bone fractures are all strongly correlated with HIV, according to the findings. In light of the rising life expectancy and prevalence of comorbidities in this population, public health programs ought to reflect and accommodate these changes.

The evaluation of epidemiological substantiation credibility, a common method utilized in a variety of investigations, serves as the foundation for these conclusions. Because the nominal significance position of P.05 is frequently used to claim new associations in literature, similar critical evaluations of literature are required. However, arising substantiation demonstrates that results based on this criterion constitute weak substantiation. This was also confirmed by our marquee review, in which 45 issues were statistically significant (P.05) but there was no satisfying substantiation-mostly suggestive substantiation was observed for only 3 issues in the study. We established largely suggestive evidence for an association between the presence of coughing and HIV infection, as well as for an association between the frequency of COPD and breathlessness. According to these findings, PLWHIV suffer significantly more from chronic respiratory illness than seronegative populations due to the high vacuity of ART. This could be related to the exponential rise in PLWHIV life expectancy, which has led to an expanding population of PLWHIV with a high prevalence of respiratory illnesses and comorbidities. In addition, PLWHIV individuals in resource-rich settings are more likely than seronegative individuals to smoke and use illegal drugs frequently, both of which are linked to more frequent respiratory and cardiovascular complaints.

The connection between HIV infection and ischemic heart disease was also supported largely by our analysis. This may be due to underpinning, habitual inflammation and vulnerable activation, in addition to coagulation abnormalities and atherosclerosis, as well as the high prevalence of smoking and illegal medication use in this population. In general, there has been a significant increase in PLWHIV mortality due to cardiovascular complaints since the introduction of ART. Studies have shown that people infected with PLWHIV have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease than people who are not infected with the virus. Other studies have shown that people infected with PLWHIV who enter protease inhibitors actually have a higher risk than people infected with PLWHIV who have never used a treatment. This could be due to inflame-growing, a term that describes a low-grade inflammation that is typical of natural aging and is consistent with the patient's vulnerable activation in PLWHIV. PLWHIV may be more susceptible to comorbid conditions like cardiovascular disease, metabolic and neurocognitive disorders, and cancer due to the combination of performing immunosenescence and "inflame-aging."



Conflict of Interest



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Citation: Wan X (2023) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Symptoms. Arch Clinic Microbio, Vol. 14 No. 2: 227.