Health Systems and Policy Research

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Research - (2022) Volume 9, Issue 10

Impact of Covid 19 on Government Policies and Administration

Bharat Pratap Singh*
Department of Political Science, ICSSR Post- Doctoral Fellowship, New Delhi, India
*Correspondence: Bharat Pratap Singh, Department of Political Science, ICSSR Post- Doctoral Fellowship, New Delhi, India, Email:

Received: 03-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. Iphspr- 22- 13007; Editor assigned: 07-Oct-2022, Pre QC No. Iphspr-22-13007; Reviewed: 18-Oct-2022, QC No. Iphspr-22-13007; Revised: 24-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. Iphspr- 22-13007 (R); Published: 31-Oct-2022, DOI: 10.36648/2254- 9137.22.9.152


The year 2020 gave birth to a pandemic called COVID-19, which overshadowed all the existing problems faced by the world. It led to the suspension of social and economic activities in almost all countries. The reinstatement of all aspects of social and economic life depends on how effectively governments tackle this pandemic and protect their populations from getting infected [1].

The development plan adopted in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly, called the Sustainable Development Goals, aims for development that ensures healthy lives and promotes the well-being of people of all ages [2]. A fundamental assumption of the goals is that health is a significant contributor and beneficiary of sustainable development policies.1 The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted public health policies in developed and developing nations across the globe. Consequently, governments worldwide have devoted their public policies to fight the pandemic [3].


COVID 19, Nation, health, government, public policies


The outcome of public arrangement relies upon its satisfactory execution [4]. Any open approach will become ineffective if general society doesn't promptly acknowledge it. The outcome of a public program or plan relies upon a few variables [5]. McConnell2 reasons that the outcome of public arrangement has three domains: cycles, projects, and legislative issues. Attention to the improvement plan among people, in general, decides its prosperity [6]. The Public authority burns through significant cash on ads for financial improvement programs coordinated toward upgrading wellbeing and training levels. According to the most recent record, public use of print, electronic, open-air media, and printed exposure was around US$500 million in the three financial years from 2016-2017 to 2018-2019.3 In India, the typical yearly open consumption on promotion is roughly US$166 million [7].

The flare-up of COVID-19 in India started showing up in late January [8]. From that point forward, the quantity of patients tainted with COVID-19 has expanded dramatically [9]. Despite the ongoing stoppage in the Indian economy, the public authority answered proactively and forced a cross-country lockdown on March 25, 2020, to control the pandemic [10]. Making lockdown fruitful in a country with a populace of roughly 1.30 billion is a mammoth undertaking for both public and subnational states [11].

Public strategy planned with comprehension of the way of behaving of the majority has a unique possibility making progress [12]. India is a vote-based republic with various religions, standing, demography, and culture across its 28 states and eight association domains [13]. The way of behaving of the Indian public, immovably directed by friendly, strict, and social standards, can be impacted by presenting the guideline of conduct financial aspects right into it [14]. The public government effectively utilised the conduct of financial matters standards in the outcome of financial advancement projects, such as the Swachh Baharat Mission and the Beti Bachao and Beti Padhao Yojana [15]. Guided by the accepted practice’s approach, Swachh Baharat Mission and Beti Bachao and Beti Padhao Yojana laid out the use of restrooms and strengthening of young ladies separately as accepted practices. By the conduct assumptions inside the general public, individuals quit pooping in the open because their neighbours were not getting it done and began esteeming their young lady kids since that turned into normal practice [16].

The lockdown in India began with a 14-hour deliberate public time limitation on March 22, 2020 [17]. The public time limit was a self-quarantine solicitation to the residents by the top state leader of India [18]. The consistent acknowledgement of the country’s public check- in time shows that the expression "public check-in time" prodded individuals toward the conduct wanted by the public authority. Requesting that residents applaud Covid heroes like specialists, medical caretakers, and police staff for 5-min periods pushed individuals to regard the cutting-edge contenders in this conflict against the pandemic. It persuaded specialists and cops to play out their obligations proficiently in this troublesome time [19]. It likewise bumped the normal public to regard specialists and police staff [20]. This poke later found lasting success in holding tainted patients under isolation under the guidance of specialists [21]. The lighting of lights, candles, or spotlights the nation over on a similar date and time represented the acknowledgement of the public lockdown strategy and created a shared mindset [22]. This multitude of drives, provoked by the public authority, became accepted practices and impacted how individuals behave in an ideal way [23].

Regardless of being in the lockdown state for around two months, different Indian states and association domains have shown blended patterns of COVID-19 cases over the period. This result propels the current review to accomplish the accompanying goals: (a) to find the segment factors influencing the spread of COVID-19, (b) to lay out a reasonable econometric model for foreseeing the focal points of COVID-19, and (c) to recommend an action distinguishing the viability of government strategies in controlling COVID-19.

Review of Literature

Nations across the globe are considering lockdown and social removing to stop the spread of COVID-19. The mass populace developments in China during the Chinese New Year occasion are a huge reason for the spread of COVID-19 in China. The daily development of populace will undoubtedly be more in metropolitan regions when contrasted with country regions. The accessible writing on COVID-19 recognises that age structure assumes a fundamental part in the spread of COVID-19. A larger number of more established individuals are confronting an extreme danger of COVID-19. Singh and Adhikari investigated the age-organized effect of social removal and found that age structure adds to surveying the effect of social separation. Age structure is pertinent because, among patients who kicked the bucket in Italy due to COVID-19, roughly 42% matured between 80 to 89 years, around 32% matured between 70 to 79 years, and roughly 8% matured between 60 to 69 years. Around 28% were matured 50-59 years. The middle period of COVID-19 patients is 47.5 years.

Jack Tsai contends that the likelihood of the spread of COVID-19 among poor people and vagrants is high. Ahmed et al. stressed that because the most ruined populaces experience the ill effects of constant circumstances, they are at a higher gamble of mortality related to COVID-19.

Situation of coronavirus

The circumstance of the Covid pandemic has been depicted as a once-in-a-century emergency where the legislatures across economies have taken various financial and money- related measures to limit the economic effect of the pandemic. In India, the public authority has also sent a scope of macroeconomic strategy reactions to manage the monetary emergency, coming about both from supply side disturbances and decreases in total interest. The Government of India (GoI) declared a progression of Aatmanirbhar Bharat or Self- Reliant India (ANB) bundles as a monetary restoration technique. As indicated by the Budget 2020-2021 introduced by the finance clergyman of India, the full monetary effect of all ANB bundles, including measures taken by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), was assessed to be about Rs. 27.1 lakh crore, which adds up to over 13% of the GDP.

The pandemic effect brought about feeble assessment, noncharge income inflow, and extended consumption. Per the Union Budget FY22, the Center's non-charge incomes decreased by (-)35.6% in FY21 (RE) over FY20 actuals. While the progression of assessment income from directs duty, Corporate Income Tax (CIT), Personal Income Tax (PIT) and circuitous charges, particularly GST, are additionally contracted. In this way, such a situation constrained the public authority to give real help to vulnerable segments of the general public and expected it to push the monetary requirements of the economy.

In such a situation, it becomes relevant to take a survey of the financial circumstance of the economy in the pre-Covid-19 period; the way things will be in the following a couple of years given the Covid-19 effect; and what methodology the public authority will embrace for the resulting a long time for monetary union. Furthermore, it isn't just about the degrees of shortages but also patching up the pertinent funding example of deficiency. Against this scenery, the review is coordinated in seven segments. Besides the presentation, the subsequent segment audits the Indian economy in the pre-Covid-19 period. The third area makes sense of the flare-up of the Covid pandemic worldwide and in India. The fourth area gives subtleties of the preventive estimates taken by the public authority to manage the pandemic. The fifth area looks at the economic effect of the Covid pandemic during 2020-2021. The 6th area manages the Covid influence on states. At long last, the last area finishes by giving financial system for following a very long time as proposed by the Union government and the Fifteenth Finance Commission.

The Economy in 2019–2020 Output Growth

On a normal, the economy developed at 6.7% over the most recent five years. Taking a gander at the presentation of the Indian economy in the year before the Covid-19 pandemic, which hit around the world, one can see that the development was low when contrasted with the first years. In 2019-2020, the Indian economy enrolled an 11-year low of 4% though, in 2018- 2019, the economy extended at 6.8%.

As per the reconsidered gauges delivered by the National Statistical Office (NSO) for the year 2019-2020, 1 the development of genuine Gross Value Added (GVA) in 2019- 2020 is 4.1% as against 6% in 2018-2019 (Table 1).


Table 1. GVA at Basic Prices by Economic Activity.

This decline is mostly credited to the compression in assembling, mining, and quarrying areas, enrolling a negative GVA development. Development likewise showed the development of just 1% during 2019-2020 compared with 6% in 2018-2019. From the interesting side, all parts were driven down, except Government Final Consumption Expenditure (GFCE) which offered supported help to total interest (Table 2).


Table 2: Final Expenditures and GDP.

The all-out products and imports during 2019-2020 shrunk by (- )2.14% and (- 5.80%, when contrasted with that of 2018- 2019, separately, which brought about constriction in import/ export imbalance during the year. In general, import/export imbalance in 2019- 2020 was US$76.4 billion, which was lower than the shortage of US$102.1 billion out of 2018-2019.

The product trades during 2019-2020 were US$313.4 billion as against US$330.1 billion during 2018-2019, enlisting a negative development of (-) 4.78% (Table 3). This is basically because of a significant fall in the commodity of 'oil-based commodities', 'pearls, valuable and semi-valuable stones and 'natural synthetic substances’ were enrolling a fall in development of over 10% in each from the level in 2018-2019 (Table 4).


Table 3: India’s Foreign Trade.


Table 4: Exports of Top 10 Commodities in 2019–2020.

The product imports during 2019-2020, then again, was US$474. Seven billion as against US$514.1 billion of every 2018-2019, enlisting a negative development of (- )9.12%. Out of the main ten products of imports in India in 2019-2020, wares like gold, pearl, valuable, semi-valuable stones, coal, coke and briquettes, etc., telecom instruments, and natural, synthetic substances enrolled a fall in the development of over 14% when contrasted with that in 2018-2019 (Table 5).


Table 5: Imports of Top 10 Commodities in 2019–2020.

The Consumer Price Index (Combined) (CPI-C) expansion for 2019-2020 expanded to 4.8% from 3.4% in 2018-2019. Expansion in food and drinks (having a load of around 46% in CPI-C) expanded from 0.7% in 2018-2019 to 6.0% in 2019-2020. For the most part, this was a result of the postponed southwest storm, joined with unseasonal downpours during the Kharif gather period, which became the reason for food expansion. The commitment of the fuel gathering to expansion diminished to 1.9% in 2019-2020 from 11.3% in the earlier year. Expansion estimated as far as Wholesale Price Index (WPI) stayed stifled during 2019- 2020 and remained at 1.7% when contrasted with 4.3% in 2018-2019 because of collapse in costs of non-food made items, fuel and power.

The financial deficiency for 2019-2020 was planned at 3.3% of GDP. The imagined development for gross duty income was 9.5% and 3.4% for all out consumption north of 2018-2019 RE. The gross expense income, nonetheless, enlisted a fall of 3.38% north of 2018-2019, and total consumption enrolled a development of 16.03% more than 2018-2019 (Table 6).


Table 6: Central Finances at Glance.

With easing back economy and declining charge income assortment,falling disinvestment, expanded use on the endowment, etc.,financial shortage deteriorated to 4.6% of GDP in 2019-2020 as against 3.4% in 2018-2019 (Table 7).


Table 7: Deficits (as % of GDP).

The outbreak of the Covid-19 Crisis

Global Spread

The Covid pandemic has reshaped the world. It began as an odd pneumonia-like affliction in Wuhan, China, and spread across 221 countries and spaces, including Antarctica (in December 2020). Starting around 9 March 2021, the infection contaminated more than 117.7 million People, with 2.6 million detailed passings. North and South America were the most outrageously struck regions, considering everything. Notwithstanding, Asia saw a flood in cases and fatalities due to the Coronavirus wave in India. The overall economy crashed as control, and moderation attempts kept hindering assembling, training, the monetary area and different possibilities of life. The United States arose as the main nation as far as every one of the boundaries: the complete number of revealed cases, passings and dynamic cases. India had the second biggest number of absolute revealed cases, followed by Brazil and Russia, yet the complete number of detailed passings was underneath that of Brazil. The figures of France were the reason for concern because its complete number of recuperated patients was most reduced, and the number of dynamic cases was the second most elevated, after the United States. This truly meant that there was a flood in several individuals getting impacted by Covid. Yet, the recuperation rate was meagre, and, whenever proceeded, this could raise the Case Fatality Rate (CFR) in France. The all-out number of announced cases, recuperated cases, dynamic cases and passings on the planet and the main ten most affected nations are given in Table 8.


Table 8: COVID-19 Reported Cases in Top 10 Countries vis-à-vis Global.

Table 9 shows the rate portion of every country in the complete number of revealed cases, recuperated cases, dynamic cases and passings on the planet. From the absolute worldwide portion of all Covid impacted cases, around one-fifth of the complete number of passing and recuperated individuals were from the United States. It likewise had one-fourth offer in the all-out number of cases. As of 9 March 2021, over half of the complete dynamic cases came from the United States and France. Among the best ten most impacted nations, India had perhaps the least offer in complete dynamic cases worldwide, after Germany and Turkey. India and Brazil had the unimportant distinction in the portion of absolute detailed cases worldwide, or at least, 9.55% and 9.39%, separately.


Table 9: County-wise Share of Reported Cases in the World.

Column (3) of (Table 10) shows that out of the whole populace of the country, the number had been contaminated by the Covid. Covid had contaminated roughly 1.53% of the total populace on the planet till the ninth of March 2021. The United States had the most special rate (9.04%) of the contaminated populace from the sickness, and India had the least rate (0.82%) of the tainted populace. In Column (3), the qualities address that out of the complete tainted cases, which level of individuals had kicked the bucket after getting contaminated in a country? Internationally, 2.22% of individuals had kicked the bucket out of the absolute cases detailed. The most notable passings had occurred in Italy and least in Turkey, out of the number of cases announced in the particular nations. The recuperation rate at the worldwide level was 79.35% and, among every one of the countries, India had the most noteworthy pace of recovery, that is to say, 96.91%. Of complete cases, France had a 6.81% recuperation rate and 90.92% of dynamic cases out of the absolute cases detailed inside the country.


Table 10: Share of Total Cases Reported Out of the Country’s Population.

Spread in India

India's most memorable novel, Covid patient, was published on 30 January 2020 in Kerala's Thrissur locale. Around then, more than 7,500 cases were accounted for in Nations As on 9 March 2021, India had the largest number of affirmed cases in Asia and the second-biggest number of affirmed cases universally after the United States, which had more than a million affirmed cases and over 157,000 passings. The perday cases crested during mid-September in India with more than 90,000 cases detailed every day, which diminished to under 15,000 beginning starting around 2021 January. A greater part of those contaminated had a movement history to nations like Italy, China and Iran, according to the investigation of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, GoI. The Economic Survey 2020-2021 properly cites that Covid-19 is a once-in-acentury emergency by giving three reasons. To begin with, the emergency was wellbeing prompted log jam, and its effect got compounded because of the mystery of the nature of infection and the high CFR of 2-6% for April-March 2020. Attributing to the vague idea of infection regarding generation number (R0) and CFR, a cross-country lockdown was forced on the world's significant economies, prompting restricted monetary exercises. This was a seldom noticed peculiarity since it was anything but a conflict or monetary emergency; however, a wellbeing-initiated emergency. Second, it was a synchronised emergency as 85-90% of economies hit downturns as two progressive quarters with falling GDP or negative GDP development. This implied that the downturn was intensified in an interconnected world due to the disturbance in the worldwide production network and

Worldwide interest disappointment. Third, the emergency was making a compromise between occupations, which implied that saving life was prioritized over creating work in the short run. This sort of emergency required a quick approach to mediation, for example, active surveillance, early location, contact following, quarantine, case the board and counteraction of spread.

Managing the Pandemic

Measures India Took to Control the Coronavirus Spread

The Indian government had reported key multi-pronged arrangement reaction to limit the section and spread of Covid. A portion of the prompt reactions was expanding the testing limit the country over; developing the ability to meet the necessities of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), covers and ventilators; setting up of 24×7 helpline number to address questions connected with Covid; travel and passage limitations in the country; cross country lockdown; improvement bundle for poor people, etc. A portion of the significant advances taken by the public authority is portrayed exhaustively as follows:

Legal Provisions and Nationwide Lockdown

India’s response to the Covid-19 pandemic predominantly dealt with the following


• The Disaster Management Act (DMA), 2005

• The Epidemic Disease Act (EDA), 1897

• The Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860

After the statement of the Covid pandemic as a told debacle, the National Executive Committee of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), set up under the Disaster Management Act, had forced the reviewed lockdowns (beginning from 24 March 2020) as displayed in Table 11. The Center gave occasional rules to states to authorize the lockdowns. The EDA 1897 was utilized by the Central and the state legislatures to address the well-being part of the calamity. This was finished regardless of how EDA doesn't characterize what comprises a risky scourge sickness. Individuals disregarding lockdown orders were being charged under Sections 188, 269 and 270 of the IPC.

A portion of the states or Union Territories, for example, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Punjab, Puducherry, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal had forced the halfway lockdown (like shutting of schools and universities) even before 24 March 2020.

Clearing Measures

The GoI began a gigantic clearing of abandoned Indian residents from across the globe called Vanda Bharat Mission in the main portion of May 2020. It conveyed a few business jets, military vehicle planes and sea warships in what is set to be one of the best peacetime bringing home practices ever. In the main stage, around 14,800 residents abandoned in 13 countries were brought back by 64 flights. Service of Civil Aviation, in coappointment with the Ministry of External Affairs, arranged Stage 2 of the Vanda Bharat Mission to bring Indian occupants from just about 31 countries from one side of the planet to the other 149 flights sent. There was another program named Operation Samudra Setu by the Indian Navy which acquired back around 2,000 Indians two boats during the principal period of departure.

Financial and Monetary Steps

To battle Covid-19, the GoI and the RBI embraced a multipronged system to keep up with monetary soundness and offer vital administrative help to soothe both interest and supply requirements presented by the pandemic. The reaction to India’s emic through financial arrangement contrasted with the ways embraced in different nations. In India, the interest upgrade was staged with an earlier spotlight on measures to give a pad to poor people and vulnerable segments of the general public.

The MSME area got the essential concentration as it is the core of Indian modern biological system and utilises an expected 11 crore people, produces 45% of the nation's absolute assembling yield, 40% of products and practically 30% of the public GDP (Mukul et al., 2020).

As indicated by the public authority, the total expense for ANB 1.0 was around 10% of the GDP. The principal tranche centred around the poor, including traveller labourers, who were provided foodgrains; ranchers were given extra re-finance backing off? Thirty thousand crores; Mudra Shishu loanees (advances beneath ? 50,000) were given interest aid of 2% for brief payees; and road sellers were worked with simple admittance to credit. To incorporate a huge number of endeavours under the section of MSMEs, the public authority had extended the meaning of MSMEs to make them qualified to profit from the advantages. Once more, in the subsequent tranche, the significant spotlight was on poor people, transients and ranchers. The significant advances included free foodgrains for travellers, expansion of the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) plot, and MGNREGA compensation raised to the public normal of? 202/day out of every day against? 182 every day, etc. Under the third tranche, measures were taken to reinforce the foundation and strategies and limit working for farming, fisheries and food handling areas. In the fourth and fifth tranche, measures for changes in the areas including coal, minerals, safeguard creation, air space the board, air terminals, MRO, circulation organisations in UTs, space area and nuclear energy were taken.

As indicated by the discoveries of IMF, India's financial measures to help its populace can be parcelled into two classifications. To begin with, over-the-line gauges which consolidated government spending (around 3.2% of GDP, of which around 2.2% of GDP is supposed to fall in the ongoing monetary year), predestined or conceded incomes (around 0.3% of GDP falling in the ongoing year) and worked with spending (around 0.3% of GDP falling due inside the ongoing year). Second, underneath theline estimates in the type of value, advances and assurances were expected to help associations and shore up credit course of action to a few areas (around 5.2% of GDP).

Under money-related and large-scale monetary measures, the RBI diminished the repo and switched repo rates by 115, and 155 premise focuses (bps) to 4.0% and 3.35%, individually. RBI had likewise declared liquidity estimates across three evaluations, including Long Term Repo Operations (LTROs), a Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) cut of 100 bps, and an expansion in the Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) to 3% of the Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) (further stretched out to 30 September 2021) and open market tasks (synchronous deal and acquisition of government protections), bringing about combined liquidity infusions of 5.9% of GDP through September.

Influence on States

The states with the higher populace and populace thickness saw the higher spread of cases and not many instances of passings. As indicated by the information provided by, Maharashtra had the biggest number of cases and passings. The Economic Survey 2021-22 contrasted Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar. These three states had the most elevated populace, with Bihar and Maharashtra having almost vague populace. Regardless, Maharashtra had a lower populace thickness than Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Notwithstanding, it was seen that Uttar Pradesh and Bihar had a lower case while Maharashtra had a lot larger number of cases than expected. The thickly populated states like Uttar Pradesh (with a populace thickness of 690 individuals/square km) and Bihar (with a populace thickness of 881 individuals/square km) as against the public normal populace thickness of 382 individuals/square km — had been considered to have managed the pandemic moderately well. Taking everything into account, it is seen that Kerala, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh oversaw it.

The Covid-19 pandemic had differing influences contingent upon elements like the spread of the infection, demography of the state and the creation of each state’s economy. As indicated by India Ratings and Research (Sinha, 2020), the states with a higher portion of horticulture experienced less contrasted with those where the offer was low as generally farming exercises were less influenced. Likewise, utility administrations, for example, power, gas, water supply, etc., are fundamental administrations utilised by families; however, states

With huge offers in assembling units saw a significant decrease in utilization of these administrations. Maharashtra is one of the greatest givers of results in the country. Since it is the point of convergence of the pandemic circumstance in a country like this, the state had been battling with the shock in the contactdelicate administration area (with 56% of its yield coming from that area). The work market was likewise anxious, given its higher offer in MSMEs, and the turnaround movement sped up the effect. While Tamil Nadu and Kerala had been battling with the development area, Gujarat, Jammu, and Kashmir confronted a stoppage in the assembling area. Even though the somewhat strong rural area safeguarded Punjab and Haryana, they needed to experience easygoing work shocks in the administration area. Moreover, Delhi and Telangana had additionally experienced administrations driven casual area shocks. Be that as it may, the agreeable monetary circumstance of Delhi, one of the key Covid-19 areas of interest, raised high standard from the Government of NCT of Delhi to go to liberal lengths fighting the emergencies.


To conclude, India was confronting a predicament in the prepandemic year because of slow development and was strolling on a tight rope. The pandemic just exacerbated the matter. Development is the key to a financial extension to take the street proposed by the Union government and the Fifteenth Finance Commission. The proper advances must be taken to get major areas of strength, keeping in mind how obligations and ventures are utilised proficiently. It is essential to guarantee consistency with regulatory and charge strategy changes.


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Citation: Singh BP (2021) Impact of Covid 19 on Government Policies and Administration. Health Sys Policy Res, Vol.9 No. 10: 152.