Health Systems and Policy Research

  • ISSN: 2254-9137
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Mini Review - (2022) Volume 9, Issue 7

Monitoring About Structural Health By Health Management

Konstantinos Kalkanis*
Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran
*Correspondence: Konstantinos Kalkanis, Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran, Email:

Received: 01-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. Iphspr- 13016; Editor assigned: 04-Jul-2022, Pre QC No. Iphspr-22- 13016; Reviewed: 18-Jul-2022, QC No. Iphspr-22- 13016; Revised: 22-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. Iphspr-22- 13016 (R); Published: 29-Jul-2022, DOI: 10.36648/2254-9137.22.9.134


The goal of this research is to create a finite difference model that will simulate Lamb wave propagation across single lap joints. The fundamental benefit of this approach is its straightforward mathematical reproduction of the existence of damage as a discontinuity in velocity values. Because of this, our approach may be used to continuously and embedded monitor the structural health of complex structures.


Health systems financing; Health statistics; Health promotion


Experimental campaigns and numerical simulations are provided to support the proposed Due to their excellent mechanical qualities and low weight; adhesive joints are employed in the maritime, automotive, and aerospace industries. They are the sole practical technique of joining components for a number of structural applications, offering benefits in terms of cost, ideal stress distribution, and simplicity of manufacture [1]. By using fasteners like bolts, rivets, or screws, bonded joints could create stress peaks that needed to be avoided. Despite these benefits, bonded joints are susceptible to failure due to fatigue deterioration of the adhesive layer, disband, and voids caused by insufficiently precise manufacturing procedures that lower the ability to sustain a load. The development of SHM systems is required to guarantee the dependability and safety of adhesively bonded joints in complicated constructions for the aforementioned causes. SHM also advances understanding of the mechanical characteristics of the structures [2]. Numerous investigations on the dynamic response of adhesive joints and the creation of effective nondestructive or eventual damages have been conducted over the past few decades [3]. Conventional NDT is of limited use since post-damage inspections must be carried out while the structure is out of operation for a substantial amount of time. In addition to visual testing, which is by far the most popular non-destructive inspection, structural components can be examined using ultrasonic A- and C-scans, X-rays, and thermography. When doing ultrasonic scanning, a transducer produces pulses of shear or compression waves at a frequency between 1 and 20 MHz As these waves travel through the adhesion zone, the path they take is modified, and some of their energy is reflected by discontinuities. By scanning the surface of a structure, A- and C-scans evaluate the size of the reflected echoes to produce a map of faults. In contrast to ultrasonography and thermography, X-ray techniques can show damage in three dimensions. Using a 3D ply-by-ply damage visualisation, delaminations were mapped to assess the through-thickness distribution of damage in S carbon fibre reinforced plastic panels subjected to low velocity impact [4]. An infrared camera was used to capture the temperature field caused by the moving heat source, and disbands and defects were then detected by analysing the perturbations of the temperature distribution [5]. This method was proposed for infrared nondestructive testing (NDT) of interlinear disbands on fibre metal laminate hybrid composites. Utilizing embedded Fibre Bragg, fatigue-induced disband in CFRP double-lap joints was studied [6]. A step-like strain distribution as a result of the load-carrying section's intactness and the stress-free section's disbandment. The study of the reflection spectrum of FBG sensors placed in various lines of a joint allowed for the identification of the disband area [7]. Electromechanically Impedance method was used to evaluate CFRP samples that had been adherently bonded [8]. This is based on the direct and opposite impacts of the attached piezoelectric sensor to the structure under inspection. The mechanical features of the structure and then the alteration of adhesive bonds are related to the electrical response detected by the sensor [9]. Numerous approaches are based on nonlinear acoustics, such as the Contact Acoustic Nonlinearity LDR, which is based on the local stiffness decrease of a certain mass connected with the defect area and the emergence of a particular frequency. Design constraints, sea keeping tests in calm and choppy waters, prediction of the fatigue life, and damage detection. Ships on the water are vulnerable to impulsive loadings and local deformations; under these circumstances, real-time damage identification is essential. The deformation of the entire structure of a powerboat entering the water's free surface is measured numerically in this research starting from local strain measurements that were obtained through a FE simulation. The structural reaction of the entire boat body has been reconstructed using a modal decomposition method. The normalised modal strains matrix A is used in this study to calibrate the reconstruction technique. To create local strain signals from virtual sensors, a transient FE analysis is used [10]. This analysis considers hydrodynamic Flexible electronics used for visual reality (VR) health monitoring open up new possibilities for wearable and remote medical care. Through real-time physiological signal monitoring and remote patient-physician communication, flexible electronics and VR could enable smart remote disease diagnosis [11]. The most important component of the wearable, flexible health-monitoring system that has received a lot of attention recently is the flexible healthcare sensor [12]. The development of flexible healthcare sensors and VR healthcare technology is briefly reviewed in this study [13]. Basic flexible materials, manufacturing processes, and their applications in health monitoring are covered in the introduction to the flexible healthcare sensor [14].


The use of flexible and wearable healthcare sensors and a VR device in a smart remote diagnosis system is described along with VR healthcare devices for telemedicine diagnosis [15]. Our ageing society nowadays requires a lot of medical resources, which is why there are more and more shortages. Patients with serious illnesses or those in need right away have received priority attention from the restricted number of medical services available. The needs of patients cannot be promptly satisfied by current and conventional medical practises. Flexible and wearable health monitoring offers a novel technology that can replace conventional diagnosis techniques, moving health care toward a more distant, portable, and timely future. In wearable health monitoring systems that could translate physiological data, flexible healthcare sensors are essential components. Various flexible sensing electronics devices, including smart flexible sensors and artificial bionic sensors, have been created for healthcare purposes and may be utilised to monitor physiological signals. Materials, manufacturing methods, and device configurationsâ?? which pertain to multidisciplinary research fusing the disciplines of materials science, device physics, chemistry, electronics, and computer scienceâ??are the main elements of flexible sensing electronics. These devices' soft, elastic, and flexible qualities made it possible for them to adhere to the skin, making it possible to wear them on any region of the body for medical purposes. Flexible electronics make such health-monitoring applications more comfortable, biocompatible, energy-saving, and portable than traditional rigid and fragile sensors. Here, we provide a summary of the components and manufacture. The majority of contact points in a network are physically stacked such that a chemical bond could be formed between them. Network topologies have thereby demonstrated electrical stability and dependability during repeated bending and show promise for use as electrodes in flexible electronics. The contact resistance between the nanowires in networks is reduced, which lowers the power consumption in finished devices. One of the key benefits of wearable technology is its low power consumption, which will increase battery life and increase working time. Sensing materials typically comprise of inorganic and organic materials with metal and semiconducting characteristics since electrical conductivity is a need. For instance, electrodes made of carbon nanotubes and grapheme are frequently utilised in flexible and wearable electrical sensors. A crucial process and a major factor behind flexible electronics is micro-manufacturing. This method might construct the circuit module on a flexible substrate, resulting in a highly integrated and miniature device. Printing and lithography are the two main categories of manufacturing operations. Due to its exact production and high resolution, lithography is a commonly used technology for the creation of microelectronic devices. If electron beams and UV light are employed as the exposure light, the resolution of this method might be as high as the micro scale and nanoscale level. The photochemical characteristics of the photoresist, which are transformed and exhibit varying dissolubility when exposed to UV light, form the basis of the lithography method. Deposition of a metal film and take-off followed this. On a target flexible substrate, conducting electrode patterns might be created in this way.


The sample was heated to a temperature of 100 to 150 °C for solidification and submerged into a polar solvent, such as acetone, for lift-off in this lithography process. As a result, polar solvent and high temperature resistance are requirements for substrate materials used in flexible substrate production. The best substrate material candidates for creating flexible electrodes were PI, PEN, and PET. Due to the swelling effect of PDMS in acetone solvent and high coefficient of thermal expansion, which results in a significant deviation in the patterning and alignment of the photoresist, lithography is challenging on an elastic PDMS substrate. The material becomes temperature-sensitive due to the huge value of thermal expansion; hence a new class of flexible temperature sensors were created using these phenomena. In addition to making electrodes, the lithography process was used to make semiconductors made of channel materials with tiny patterns. For instance, Sun and Rogers created the "top-down" strategy, in which semiconductor single-crystalline nano-/microstructures are created using lithographic patterning and etching procedures. However, there are still significant issues with the lithography method used to create flexible electronics. It is challenging to achieve resolution of alignment at the nanoscale level due to the thermal expansion of flexible substrate. The flexible organic electronic material is harmed by the polar solvent used to remove the photoresist, which has an impact on the electrical characteristics and performance of the final applications.



Conflict of Interest



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Citation: Mark Merolli (2022) Health Outcome in Cancer Patients by Health System Policy Health Sys Policy Res Vol. 09 No. Issue 07:134