Translational Biomedicine

  • ISSN: 2172-0479
  • Journal h-index: 18
  • Journal CiteScore: 5.91
  • Journal Impact Factor: 4.11
  • Average acceptance to publication time (5-7 days)
  • Average article processing time (30-45 days) Less than 5 volumes 30 days
    8 - 9 volumes 40 days
    10 and more volumes 45 days
Awards Nomination 20+ Million Readerbase
Indexed In
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • JournalTOCs
  • ResearchBible
  • The Global Impact Factor (GIF)
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • CiteFactor
  • Scimago
  • Electronic Journals Library
  • Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • Proquest Summons
  • Publons
  • MIAR
  • University Grants Commission
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • Euro Pub
  • Google Scholar
  • Secret Search Engine Labs
  • ResearchGate
  • International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)
Share This Page

Perspective - (2023) Volume 14, Issue 5

Plasma proteomics to distinguish biomarkers: Applications in cardiovascular illnesses

Rim Lassoued*
Department of Proteomics, Riggs University of Sciences, Calgary, Canada
*Correspondence: Rim Lassoued, Department of Proteomics, Riggs University of Sciences, Calgary, Canada, Email:

Received: 04-Sep-2023, Manuscript No. iptb-23-14151; Editor assigned: 07-Sep-2023, Pre QC No. P-14151; Reviewed: 21-Sep-2023, QC No. Q-14151; Revised: 03-Oct-2023, Manuscript No. R-14151; Published: 31-Oct-2023, DOI: -


Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) refers to a class of disorders affecting the heart and blood vessels, including conditions like coronary artery disease, heart failure and stroke. CVD is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, often linked to risk factors like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking and a sedentary lifestyle. Early detection, lifestyle modifications and medical interventions are vital in managing CVD. Understanding and managing CVD risk factors can significantly reduce the incidence of these diseases, promoting heart and vascular health and improving overall well-being.

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) continue to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, prompting extensive research into the identification of novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, risk assessment and therapeutic monitoring. One of the promising avenues in this field is the use of plasma proteomics, a high-throughput approach to analyze the proteins present in blood plasma. This article delves into the principles of plasma proteomics and its application in identifying biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases.


The importance of biomakers in cardiovascular diseases

Cardiovascular diseases encompass a wide range of conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels, including coronary artery disease, heart failure and stroke. Early detection and risk stratification are pivotal for timely interventions and biomarkers play a crucial role in achieving these goals. Biomarkers are measurable substances that indicate the presence or severity of a disease or a physiological condition. In the context of cardiovascular diseases, they can aid in diagnosing conditions, predicting outcomes and monitoring treatment responses.

Plasma proteomics

Plasma proteomics is a subfield of proteomics that focuses on the study of proteins present in blood plasma. Blood plasma, the liquid component of blood, contains a vast array of proteins, including enzymes, transport proteins, signaling molecules and immune factors. Analyzing the proteome of plasma allows for the detection of changes in protein expression, post-translational modifications and the identification of potential biomarkers for various diseases, including CVDs.

Discovery proteomics

One of the primary applications of plasma proteomics in CVD research is the discovery of novel biomarkers. Using techniques like mass spectrometry and high-throughput immunoassays, researchers can analyze the plasma proteome to identify proteins that are differentially expressed or modified in patients with cardiovascular diseases compared to healthy individuals. These proteins have the potential to serve as biomarkers for disease detection and risk assessment.

For example, a study conducted by Zanetti et al., used mass spectrometry to identify candidate biomarkers for heart failure in plasma. They found that certain proteins involved in inflammation and cardiac remodeling were upregulated in heart failure patients, suggesting their potential as biomarkers for disease progression.

Biomarker validation

Once potential biomarkers are discovered, the next step is validation. This involves evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic value of the identified proteins in larger patient cohorts. Validation studies are essential to ensure that the biomarkers are specific and reliable in predicting cardiovascular disease.

Risk assessment

Plasma proteomics can also aid in risk assessment by identifying biomarkers associated with the likelihood of developing CVD in asymptomatic individuals. For example, elevated levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in plasma have been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. This information can help identify individuals at higher risk, allowing for preventive measures to be implemented.

Treatment monitoring

Monitoring the response to treatment is another crucial aspect of managing cardiovascular diseases. By tracking changes in specific plasma proteins over time, clinicians can assess the effectiveness of therapies and make adjustments as needed. For instance, Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) levels are commonly used to monitor heart failure patients, with decreasing levels indicating a positive response to treatment.

Challenges in plasma proteomics

While plasma proteomics holds great promise, it also presents several challenges that researchers must address:

Heterogeneity of plasma proteome: The plasma proteome is highly complex and dynamic, with thousands of proteins present in varying concentrations. This complexity makes it challenging to identify specific biomarkers and requires sophisticated analytical techniques.

Sample handling and preparation: The collection, handling and storage of plasma samples can significantly impact the results of proteomic studies. Standardized protocols and quality control measures are essential to minimize variability.

Data analysis

Analyzing the vast amount of data generated by proteomic studies is a significant challenge. Bioinformatics tools and expertise are required to identify meaningful biomarkers and interpret their clinical relevance.


Reproducibility is a common concern in proteomic research. Biomarker candidates identified in one study must be independently validated to ensure their reliability.

Examples of plasma proteomics in CVD

Several studies have successfully applied plasma proteomics to identify biomarkers and gain insights into cardiovascular diseases. Some noteworthy examples include:

Troponins for myocardial infarction: Cardiac troponins are well-established biomarkers for myocardial infarction (heart attack). High-sensitivity troponin assays can detect even minor cardiac injury and have revolutionized the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes.

Natriuretic peptides for heart failure: Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are biomarkers widely used in the diagnosis and management of heart failure. Elevated levels are indicative of cardiac stress and correlate with disease severity.

Apolipoproteins for atherosclerosis: Apolipoproteins, such as ApoB and ApoA-1, have been associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. Their measurement can provide insights into lipid metabolism and disease risk.


Plasma proteomics has emerged as a powerful tool in the quest to identify biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. By analyzing the vast array of proteins present in blood plasma, researchers can discover and validate potential biomarkers, assess disease risk and monitor treatment responses. While challenges such as sample handling, data analysis and reproducibility exist, the potential benefits for early diagnosis and improved patient care make plasma proteomics a promising avenue for cardiovascular disease research. As technology advances and our understanding of the plasma proteome deepens, we can expect more precise and effective biomarkers to emerge, ultimately contributing to better outcomes for individuals.