International Journal of Drug Development and Research

  • ISSN: 0975-9344
  • Journal h-index: 51
  • Journal CiteScore: 46.50
  • Journal Impact Factor: 26.99
  • Average acceptance to publication time (5-7 days)
  • Average article processing time (30-45 days) Less than 5 volumes 30 days
    8 - 9 volumes 40 days
    10 and more volumes 45 days
Awards Nomination 20+ Million Readerbase
Indexed In
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • CiteFactor
  • Scimago
  • Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • Publons
  • MIAR
  • University Grants Commission
  • Euro Pub
  • Google Scholar
  • J-Gate
  • Secret Search Engine Labs
  • ResearchGate
  • International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)
Share This Page

Mini Review - (2023) Volume 15, Issue 4

Size Effects of Saturable and Reverse Saturable Absorption in Silver Nanoparticles and Ultrafast Dynamics

Tusharkant Singh*
Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
*Correspondence: Tusharkant Singh, Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, Email:

Received: 01-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. ijddr-23-13665; Editor assigned: 04-Apr-2023, Pre QC No. P-13665; Reviewed: 18-Apr-2023, QC No. Q-13665; Revised: 21-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. R-13665; Published: 28-Apr-2023


Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption are of particular interest in studies of the nonlinear optical properties of nanoparticles under resonant excitation. Nonlinear absorption mechanisms of chemically generated silver nanoparticles in deionized water were examined using femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm. Our nonlinear absorption research shows that saturable absorption and two-photon absorption in generated Ag NPs compete with one another depending on the size of the nanoparticles. Damped oscillation, a by-product of radial breathing mode oscillation caused by acoustic vibration, has been observed in Ag NPs stimulated at 400 nm.


Nanoparticles; Nonlinear; Absorption; Metal nanoparticles; Optical limiting; Multifunctionality


Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated distinctive nonlinear optical (NLO) features that point to their potential use in a variety of industries, including biology, electronics, data storage, and sensing. This is because the increased third-order optical nonlinearities caused by the lower dimensionality are what caused the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to arise. Numerous noble metal NPs have been investigated in a variety of settings dictated by the powerful light source.

The behaviour of metal nanoparticles in the presence of strong laser pulses has been demonstrated by numerous groups. Their research demonstrates that a variety of mechanisms, including saturable absorption (SA), twophoton absorption (2PA), optical limiting (OL), and optical Kerr nonlinearities, are responsible for their NLO features. At sufficiently high power of the used laser pulse, SA has a significant impact on the overall nonlinear optical response[1]. The processes of absorption saturation may be resisted by a different phenomenon known as reverse saturable absorption (RSA). Because the ground state is depleted as incident laser energies grow, the nonlinear absorber experiences substantial excited state absorption at high laser energies as a result of the RSA process. Such nonlinear materials' performance is constrained by the concomitant linear absorption at low input energy. When the population of incident photons reaches a sufficient size in an excited state, they may in this scenario be further absorbed by excited states. These processes depend not only on the incident photon's intensity but also on its frequency, which has a significant impact on whether or not the incident photon undergoes resonance. Due to the related energy level of metal NPs, which offers the opportunity to be explored with the variation of NP size, there are few publications on the competitive behaviour of SA and RSA combined [2].

In addition to NLO properties of materials, many-body interactions in a condensed matter and molecular system have been a major source of concern because they have a significant impact on ultrafast processes like electronphonon interactions, which greatly affect properties like electrical and thermal conduction, superconductivity through Raman scattering, and polaron formation. It is discovered that the electrical, thermal, and optical properties of bulk materials are impacted by the ultrafast process. It has taken a lot of work—and continues to take work—to understand the mechanism underlying these ultrafast events. Understanding the impact of the electronphonon interaction on the characteristics of reduced dimensional systems has advanced significantly. On the topic of electron-phonon interaction in NPs, a substantial literature is addressed. Short laser pulses interact with NPs in a variety of ultrafast ways, including electron-electron coupling, electron-phonon coupling, and phonon-phonon coupling. The dissipation of the acoustic vibrations in noble NPs upon ultrafast laser pulse stimulation, which depends on the size, shape, and surrounding media, has been the subject of numerous investigations in addition to these ultrafast processes [3].

Silver (Ag) NPs stand out among other metal NPs for their distinctive optoelectronic and thermal characteristics, which make them an effective choice for a variety of technological developments such molecular diagnostics and photonic devices based on their optical features. Ag NPs are an excellent example of extremely effective optical characteristics, which are dependent on the particle's size and shape. Depending on the excitation wavelength, there have been a number of reports describing the presence of SA and TPA in Ag NPs. Ag NPs has also been investigated in order to study ultrafast dynamics that vary with their size and form. There are, however, few studies on a systematic investigation of coherent oscillations in ultrafast dynamics that depend on the size and structure of Ag NPs. In order to properly offer the correlation of NLO characteristics and ultrafast dynamics with the size of NPs, our goal was to explore the NLO properties and ultrafast dynamics associated with Ag NPs under SPR [4].


Create a functioning leadership group with the dean as the leader and the deputy dean as the vice leader for the percentage of control medications. This will advance medicine, promote responsible application of clinical medications and antibacterial therapies, lower the drug ratio, and work in tandem with our hospital. The organization's office is referred to as the "drug control office." Management is under the direction of the chief of the clinical department of the drug department. To advance hospital drug control rules and regulations, management techniques, and medical modification; to increase awareness of reasonable, legal, and compliant drug use among healthcare professionals; and to advance publicity, inspections, punishments, and rewards, the leading group established a medical department, a pharmacy department, and an advocacy department [5].

Drugs for the cardiovascular system, those for the nervous system, those for the fight against cancer, those used as adjuvant therapy, as well as some injections of Chinese medicine, lose their most crucial monitoring and control, and their most crucial monitoring is cut in half. Clinical pharmacists and other medical experts were convened by the Drug Control Office to evaluate the top 20 prescription drugs each month. The medication was put on hold for three months whenever there was a trend towards excessively routine or unnecessary prescriptions. The drug control office considers the actual to target ratio for determining the Department drug occupancy goal for clinical departments. The department bonus and director are not fined if the reduction exceeds 30%. 50% of the manager's incentive is withheld if the decline is less than 30%. The department level should strengthen the regulation, reduce the medication under the assumption of reasonable drug use, and have conversations and impose penalties with the super routine drug use and personal record inspection departments for nutritional support class auxiliary medication of the hospital's key control and halving shopper medicine newly communicated by the hospital each month [6].

If you use four or more medicines, you are not allowed to participate in the yearly evaluation. The top 10 doctors with the highest monthly prescription costs had their prescribing habits examined. The doctor who scored the most improper drug use points received an appointment, and the top doctor received a Codonopsis action each month. When the hospital's medicine ratio failed to accomplish the overall objective, the professional or department that fell short was chosen based on those individuals' professional traits (the target professional for the drug ratio is not in the normal department's sequence). The medical record of the doctor who saw patients at the lowest average cost was changed to include POA. Withholding the doctor's bonus for the month, the department director and doctor who present with improper medicine administration schedule a visit [7].

A medical record point occurs when three unreasonable doctors schedule an appointment; suspend prescription rights for three months, report to the medical department, and report to the department director by the record review department within a half-year. Every month, the drug control office organises the clinical pharmacists and other clinical experts in the pharmacy department, and doctors randomly select medical records for review from the top ten time average costs, the first two in each specialty, and the top ten in class I incision surgery prevention. The point review division stays away from. On the expert panel, each clinical department head is required to assess appropriate medication use. The reasonable drug use ward was managed by the medical, pharmacy, sensory control, critical care and laboratory medicine departments each week. Visit a clinical division once a week, review the on-going medical record for proper drug use, and watch hospital patients. Focus on the use of antibacterial medications, the frequency of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgical departments, the prevalence of antimicrobial use prior to treatment, the quantity of antimicrobial drug consumption, and the prevalence of bacterial resistance when asking about the disease's progression. The five department union draws attention to pharmaceutical issues and engages in direct dialogue with the clinical department [8].


A UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Agilent Technologies) was used to measure the optical absorption spectra of Ag NP suspensions in deionized water. At wavelengths of 389 nm for S1 and S3, 381 nm for S5 and S7, and 385 nm for S9 and S11, we can detect a characteristic surface Plasmon resonance. These peaks developed as a direct result of the size of Ag NPs. Ag NPs produced at 0°C show an absorption band at 389 nm and a side absorption band at 433 nm in their SPRs. All Ag NPs exhibit these absorption peaks at about 390 nm as a direct result of the shift from occupied to unoccupied sp [9].

Our research demonstrates that in prepared Ag NPs, the absorption band at 430 nm first appears at 0 °C and 25 °C, while the absorption peak at 350 nm first appears at 60 °C. The production of prolate and oblate spheroid NPs by the Ag NP distortion is responsible for the appearance of these absorption bands. Due to the intense multipolar excitation, these deformed NPs are to blame for the appearance of the SPR band at 350 and 430 nm. SEM pictures of prepared Ag NPs at various temperatures together with their corresponding histograms. The produced Ag NPs' deformed shape is clearly seen in the SEM pictures. Ag NPs linked with S3, S7, and S11 have been found to have similar sizes and narrower distributions than Ag NPs associated with S1, S5, and S9, respectively.

S1, S5, and S9 were created utilising the method of slow addition of aqueous AgNO3 in aqueous SBH solution, as stated in the experimental setup. The process by which NPs are produced begins with the reduction of metal ions by a reducing agent, followed by the clustering of the reduced metal that serves as the seed for the growth of NPs of various sizes. At first, the dripping method of addition is primarily used to generate the smaller-sized aggregates. When metal ions are added to the suspension in greater quantities, these aggregates expand into larger NPs. In contrast to NPs made by instantly combining a metal ion and a reducing agent, where the nucleation is the limiting step in NP formation, this process results in larger-sized NPs [10].


In this article, we provide the findings of methodical investigations of chemically produced Ag nanoparticles, which effectively provide NP size variation. We use femtosecond pulses at 400 nm and 800 nm to illustrate how the size of Ag NP affects the SA and RSA. Using femtosecond 400 nm, ultrafast dynamics of chemically produced Ag NPs is investigated. Following resonant wavelength excitation, we detected sonic vibration in Ag NPs. In-depth discussion was held regarding the impact of NP size on acoustic oscillations and related damping time constants.



Conflict of Interest



  1. Yazdani J, Ahmadian E, Sharifi S, et al. A short view on Nano hydroxyapatite as coating of dental implants. Biomed Pharmacothe. 2018;105:553-557.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  3. Rasouli R, Barhoum A, Uludag H, et al. A review of nanostructured surfaces and materials for dental implants: surface coating, patterning and functionalization for improved performance. Biomater Sci. 2018;6:1312-1338.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  5. Hao Y, Huang X, Zhou X, et al. Influence of dental prosthesis and restorative materials interface on oral biofilms. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;1:9-10.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  7. Chen L, Subirade M. Alginate-whey protein granular microspheres as oral delivery vehicles for bioactive compounds. Biomaterials. 2006;27:4646-4654.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  9. Wang N, Wu XS. Preparation and characterization of agarose hydrogel nanoparticles for protein and peptide drug delivery. Pharm Dev Technol. 1997;2:135-142.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  11. Talegaonkar S, Azeem A, Ahmad F, et al. Micro emulsions: a novel approach to enhanced drug delivery. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul. 2008;2:238-257.
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  13. Wang Z, Yang K, Li H, et al. In situ observation of sol-gel transition of agarose aqueous solution by fluorescence measurement. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;112:803-808.
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  15. Peppas NA, Bures P, Leobandung W, et al. Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2000;50:27-46.
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  17. Scholz OA, Wolff A, Schumacher A, et al. Drug delivery from the oral cavity: focus on a novel mechatronic delivery device. Drug Disco Today. 2008;13:247-253.
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  19. Sousa MGC, Maximiano MR, Costa RA, et al. Nanofibers as drug-delivery systems for infection control in dentistry. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2020;17:919-930.
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref