Flyer

Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience

  • ISSN: 2171-6625
  • Journal h-index: 15
  • Journal CiteScore: 2.13
  • Journal Impact Factor: 1.45
  • Average acceptance to publication time (5-7 days)
  • Average article processing time (30-45 days) Less than 5 volumes 30 days
    8 - 9 volumes 40 days
    10 and more volumes 45 days
20+ Million Readerbase
Indexed In
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • The Global Impact Factor (GIF)
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • Proquest Summons
  • Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF)
  • Euro Pub
  • Google Scholar
  • Secret Search Engine Labs
Share This Page
Recommended Webinars & Conferences

36th European Neurology Congress 2023

Amsterdam, Netherlands Antilles

Mini Review - (2022) Volume 13, Issue 10

Some cases of narcolepsy are reported in the Slovakian narcolepsy database

Katarína Slavkovska*
 
Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of P.J. Šafárik and University Hospital of L. Pasteur, Trieda SNP 1, 04011 Košice, Slovakia
 
*Correspondence: Katarína Slavkovska, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of P.J. Šafárik and University Hospital of L. Pasteur, Trieda SNP 1, 04011 Košice, Slovakia, Email:

Received: 03-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. ipjnn-22-13349; Editor assigned: 05-Oct-2022, Pre QC No. P-13349; Reviewed: 19-Oct-2022, QC No. Q-13349; Revised: 25-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. R-13349; Published: 02-Nov-2022

Abstract

The association between central hypersomnia and mood, anxiety, or hyperactivity disorders is common. In addition to a psychotic episode or schizophrenia, NT1 is rarer in the national narcolepsy database and may present with distinct diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We examined the frequency of NT1 patients diagnosed with psychosis and/or schizophrenia and sought to look for signs of narcolepsy and psychotic illness. Three (4%) NT1 patients were diagnosed with a psychotic episode at age 18. In the re-evaluation (mean duration of 9.8 years), we observed one case with a dual diagnosis of NT1 and schizophrenia. In addition to NT1 and a psychotic episode, two NT1 patients were diagnosed with NT1 and a psychosis. We found that NT1 patients diagnosed before the age of 18 were at a higher risk for psychotic episodes (mean 14.4 years), compared to those that were diagnosed after the age of 18 (mean 8.8 years).

Keywords

Psychotic episode; Narcolepsy; Hypocretin deficiency; Schizophrenia.

Keywords

Psychotic episode; Narcolepsy; Hypocretin deficiency; Schizophrenia.

Introduction

Central hypersomnias, also known as central sleep disorders, are uncommon sleep-wake disorders that feature excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) lasting at least three months and cataplexy with/without hypnagogic/ hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, vivid dreams, and disrupted night sleep. NT1 is characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) that lasts at least three months and hallucinatory/hypnagogic/hypnopompic dreams, sleep paralysis, vivid dreams, and disturbed night sleep. REM sleep disturbances such as Sleep Onset REM (SOREM) in night sleep and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) are confirmed by using polysomnographic night and daytime PSG studies (PSG). An alternative diagnostic tool is the examination of cerebrospinal fluid for low or undetectable Hcrt1. In narcolepsy with cataplexy, if PSG cannot be performed under standard conditions, low or undetectable Hcrt1 is critical. With ambiguous results, however, the diagnosis may be difficult to establish.

Although Hcrt1 deficiency does not fully meet the requirements for a true autoimmune condition, it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder based on the presence of the HLA haplotype in nearly 100% of cases of Hcrt1 deficient narcolepsy. The strength of the genetic predisposition focusing on autoimmune origin lies in the particular genetic haplotype HLA found in nearly 100% of cases of Hcrt1 deficient narcolepsy. Despite the significant advances in understanding the neurological basis of NT1, therapy is currently only symptomatic. It is difficult to target specific biomarkers for NT1 patients, for example, through distinct metabolic pathways, if this is confirmed in the future. In addition, nonpeptide orexin receptor agonists are currently being developed. Immunotherapy administered as soon as possible after disease onset could theoretically slow the destruction of orexin neurons in some patients.

Literature Review

In 2003, patientM.P also 18, was appertained for an evaluation of day somnolence (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS, 18 points). He was talking about his frequent sleep breaks at academy over the last two times. He also complained about being unfit to move in bed at night. He felt like his knees were broken or he was weak for a while while playing and having fun with his youngish relatives. He denied passing visions while sleeping or waking up.M.P. passed a PSG examination/ night PSG in 2005, which revealed fractured night sleep without REM pathology, no present sleep apnea, a normal PLMS indicator, and a mean Sleep quiescence of2.5 min with the presence of 4 SOREMs in 4 cases. tests. A inheritable test revealed the presence of the specific haplotype HLA DQR * 0602. He refused a lumbar valve to test the Hcrt- 1 position. Grounded on ICSD-2, he was diagnosed with wakefulness with cataplexy grounded on a typical history and PSG findings. As a standard procedure, he was asked to suffer a psychiatric evaluation before beginning modafinil treatment in 2004.

The psychiatrist failed to honor productive symptoms and paranoid or suicidal tendencies, and modafinil treatment was specified at a cure of 100- 200 mg daily. He came in for a check- up in August 2005, complaining that he heard voices mocking him and giving orders during the day. During the day, he was bothered by voices. Difficulties persisted for three months. In January 2005, he stopped taking modafinil. Anafranil as well as Risperidone remedy was initiated. He was admitted to a psychiatric clinic in March 2006 for severe behavioural diseases during psychotic gests. In 2012, a paediatric neurologist estimated the eleven- time-old case for fatigue and somnolence. She also complained about dizziness, leg cramps, and poor sleep quality. The paediatrician discovered metabolic pattern, which included rotundity, hypercholesterolemia, hepatopathy, and the onset of puberty. A targeted sleep memory revealed 2 months of inordinate day somnolence with no cataplexy, visions, or sleep palsy.

The PSG examination revealed fractured nightly sleep with low effectiveness; the PLMS indicator was normal in the absence of sleep apnea. The MSLT test revealed a 6 nanosecond sleep quiescence and the presence of SOREM in 1 of 5 tests. HLA DQB*0602 was set up to be present. A reappraisal with a quiescence was recommended because the opinion of wakefulness wasn't unequivocally verified. According to a child clinical psychologist, there has been an increase in pressure. This was characterised by psychomotor restlessness and mild anxiety. The child psychiatrist diagnosed the condition as a combination of prostration, a neurotic decompensated child, and stock contest and advised SSRI treatment. Core NT1 symptoms were present during the listed visit in 2022 day somnolence (ESS 12 points) was fairly compensated by a strict sleep- wake schedule with diurnal exercise and avoidance of emotional triggers, and typical cataplexy was present once a week.

He saw pictorial dreams and visions really. He lost 15 kilogrammes. Motor aggression didn't confirm conflicts with parents. In 2022, the clinical psychologist concluded that a disharmonic personality development was told by significantly lower- than-average cognitive capability.M.S. is attracted to external stimulants, is fluently tempted, and has a pictorial imagination. He has a stubborn, responsible, debonair, and innocent personality that leads to sexual fantasies. insincerity instantiations appeared without paranoid symptoms. He's unresistant and unresponsive in social situations. dependent on the other person. tonecondemning, egoism, poor conviviality, andnon-acceptance by others each contribute to a borderline position in the group. The psychotic occasion wasn't proven at this time, according to an examination of psychopathology, a psychiatric examination, and a psychodiagnostic procedure. Taking into account the case's current symptoms, age, and complaint progression, the psychiatrist concluded that the opinion was other mixed diseases of conduct and feelings.

Discussion

In Slovakia, 69 cases of NT1 were diagnosed by 2021. Three cases in the database were diagnosed with psychosis or a psychotic illness at the same time. Cases with binary judgments had EDS and cataplexy by the age of 18 times; the individual detention was veritably short in comparison to the database population. A detailed retrospective analysis of the cases verified the clinical symptoms of wakefulness and cataplexy, as well as the presence of a specific haplotype and the presence of hcrt- 1 insufficiency in two of them. Routine cerebral and psychiatric examinations at the time of opinion revealed no substantiation of psychotic symptoms. Within two times of being diagnosed with NT1, psychotic symptoms and behavioural diseases were proved. The oneof- a-kind exploration The thing of the design was to track the progression of psychotic symptoms over time.

Times latterly, an examination revealed that the psychotic occasion in two cases was solitary, while schizophrenia was verified in one. The characteristic treatment of NT1 was significantly told by a history of schizophrenia.

NT1 psychiatric comorbidities include mood diseases, anxiety diseases, and attention deficiency hyperactivity complaint. Psychosis and schizophrenia are uncommon conditions. examined 100 PubMed papers and 58 NT1 cases. There are two types of psychosis and wakefulness. The psychotic form of wakefulness was diagnosed in seventeen cases. They had more severe and pictorial REM- related visions or dream/ reality confusions that were rationalised in vision- suchlike gests . 41 cases with comorbid schizophrenia diapason complaint and psychotic symptoms were studied. Symptoms unconnected to sleep were more disorganised [1-5].

Conclusion

NT1 cases diagnosed before the age of 18 have a advanced threat of psychotic complaint, which may be related to increased vulnerability during the ongoing neurodevelopmental period. In our experience, they must be nearly covered, particularly during the first two times following NT1 opinion. rightly recognising the symptoms of a psychotic occasion is critical for remedial operation and can help internal illness from worsening due to characteristic treatment of NT1, particularly with instigations. Given that NT1 is a rare complaint, our findings must be verified in other public databases.

Acknowledgement

None.

Conflict of Interest

The authors certify no conflict of interest with any financial organization about the material described in the manuscript.

References

  1. Bassetti CL, Adamantidis A, Burdakov D. Narcolepsy—clinical spectrum, aetiopathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Neurol. 2019;15(9):519-39.
  2. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  3. Dauvilliers Y, Barateau L, Middleton B. Metabolomics signature of patients with narcolepsy. Neurol. 2022;98(5):e493-505.
  4. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  5. Sun HQ, Li SX, Chen FB. Diurnal neurobiological alterations after exposure to clozapine in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;64:108-16.
  6. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  7. Ohayon MM. Narcolepsy is complicated by high medical and psychiatric comorbidities: A comparison with the general population. Sleep Med. 2013 Jun 1;14(6):488-92.
  8. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  9. Hanin C, Arnulf I, Maranci JB. Narcolepsy and psychosis: A systematic review. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2021;144(1):28-41.
  10. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at