Translational Biomedicine

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Short Communication - (2016) Volume 7, Issue 2

The Occurrence of a High Number of Lung Cancer Metastases is Consonant with the Proposed Theory of Erythrocyte Associated Necrosis Factor

Wilson IB Onuigbo*
Department of Pathology, Medical Foundation and Clinic, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: Wilson IB Onuigbo, Department of Pathology, Medical Foundation and Clinic, 8 Nsukka Lane, Enugu 40001, Nigeria, Tel: +2348037208680, E-mail:
Received: Feb 26, 2016, Accepted: Mar 10, 2016, Published: Mar 15, 2016
Citation: Wilson OIB. The Occurrence of a High Number of Lung Cancer Metastases is Consonant with the Proposed Theory of “Erythrocyte Associated Necrosis Factor”. Transl Biomed. 2016, 7:2.
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In this journal, I argued that, concerning cancer necrosis itself, which was personally named as the Erythrocyte Associated Necrosis Factor (EANF), it plays a significant role. Accordingly, it is necessary to weigh repeatedly any evidence, which crops up or becomes recognized, in order to confirm or confute any such subsisting hypothesis. Elsewhere, it was hypothesized that EANF positively explains the anomalous lack of contralateral deposits in the cases of lung cancer. This emerged right from the experiences of the medical masters of yester years. In this context, another working hypothesis is being brought forward, namely, that when EANF production is low, the resulting metastases tend to be high in number. In conclusion, just as dangerous bleeding brought death in the days of yore, and the discovery of the Coagulation Factor brought relief, let EANF become the harbinger of the cure of cancer itself be it in the lung or elsewhere.


Lung; Cancer; EANF; Low production; High metastasis


In the quest for what can be achieved through Translational Medicine, I proposed in this Journal [1] that the stem cells model stands to be exploitable on using my proposed “Erythrocyte Associated Necrosis Factor” (EANF) [2]. This Factor arose when experience with the special Mono-Block Formalin-Fixation method [3] was used in combination with the Swiss-Roll method [4] to examine cancer cells being carried along the 45 cm long thoracic duct at the moment of death. Indeed, I concluded thus:
Necrosis of the cancer cells was apparent in three cases, but it was clear that this had occurred in association with large aggregates of the malignant cells and that among such aggregated cells red blood corpuscles abounded.”
Now, the aim of cancer therapy is to kill the cancer cells, i.e., to cause the bodily necrosis of them. Therefore, it is EANF, i.e., the gift of Nature proper, that I propose to be used during life, even if it merely appeared locally in the duct’s microenvironment. Accordingly, with the recent emergence of intravital video microscopy [5], which has gained acceptance in animal experiment [6], its employment in consenting cancer patients should ensure the replication of this force majeure.
Perhaps, supportive arguments are to be sought. In this respect, I would add here one such element, even if it is on the negative side! Therefore, let me recall the well-known superior situation of lung cancer next to the left heart from which it can be dispersed through the aorta potentially to every organ [7]. Meanwhile, what keeps happening? For one thing, factor such as “Soil Suitability” has long been known [8]. For another thing, there is also “Organ Selectivity” [9]. Therefore, let me hypothesize here that it is the newly identified EANF that is the controlling mechanism!
Note that its hand is at play when lung cancer fails surprisingly to spread to its own contralateral cohort [10]. Consequently, when EANF production is low, this is consonant with a high number of metastases in lung cancer. In all probability, this is in sharp contrast with the 1949 MD Thesis of Cambridge University [11], my 1963 paper [12] and that of Yesner [13], with regard to lung cancers wider than 10 cm, i.e., “bulky” lung cancers. Indeed, it is not mere chance that these spread neither to the contralateral lung nor to the extrathoracic organs.
In conclusion, just as bleeding was followed by death in the days of yore, but is now defeated due to the discovery of the Coagulation Factor [14], let there be hope that cancer itself will also be cured with the discovery of EANF whether in the so far specifically named lung cancer itself or in the other cancers themselves.


  1. Onuigbo WIB (2015) What is the possible role of stem cells in the proposed “Erythrocyte Associated Necrotic Factor” exploitable in Translational Medicine. Translational Medicine 5:149.
  2. Onuigbo WIB (1963) A mono-block formalin-fixation method for investigating cancer metastasis. Zeitschrift fur Krebsforschung 65:209-210.
  3. Onuigbo WIB (1967) The carriage of cancer cells by the thoracic duct. British Journal of Cancer 21:496-500.
  4. Onuigbo WIB (2014) Is there a natural translational system suitable for the target therapy of lung cancer? Translational Medicine 4:2.
  5. Chambers AF, MacDonald IC, Schmidt EE(1995) Steps in tumor metastasis: new concepts from intravital videomicroscopy. Cancer Metastasis Reviews 14: 279-302.
  6. Byrick RJ, Kay JC, Mazer CD(2003) Dynamic characteristics of cerebral lipid microemboli: Videomicroscopy studies in rats. AnesthAnalg 97: 1789-1794.
  7. Willis RA (1934) The spread of tumours in the human body. 3rd ed, London: Butherworthspp: 39.
  8. Onuigbo WIB (1975) The origins of the soil theory of cancer metastasis. MateriaMedicaPolona, 7:254-255.
  9. Onuigbo WIB (1974) Organ selectivity in human cancer metastasis. A review. Oncology 30:294-303.
  10. Onuigbo WIB (2014) Anomalous lung cancer carriage: A historical review with present prospects. International Journal of Surgery 12: 734-736.
  11. Bryson CC (1949) Carcinoma of the bronchus. MD Thesis. Cambridge University.
  12. Onuigbo WIB (1963) The metastasis of bulky lung cancers. Oncologia 16:109-115.
  13. Yesner R (1988) histopathology of lung cancer. Sem Ultrasound CTMR 9: 4-29.
  14. Laurence DR, Bennette PN (1987) Clinical Pharmacology 6th ed ELBS Churchill Livingstone 562-570.