Archives of Clinical Microbiology

  • ISSN: 1989-8436
  • Journal h-index: 24
  • Journal CiteScore: 8.01
  • Journal Impact Factor: 7.55
  • Average acceptance to publication time (5-7 days)
  • Average article processing time (30-45 days) Less than 5 volumes 30 days
    8 - 9 volumes 40 days
    10 and more volumes 45 days
Awards Nomination 20+ Million Readerbase
Indexed In
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • The Global Impact Factor (GIF)
  • Open Archive Initiative
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • Proquest Summons
  • Publons
  • MIAR
  • University Grants Commission
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • Euro Pub
  • Google Scholar
  • Scimago Journal Ranking
  • Secret Search Engine Labs
  • ResearchGate
  • International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)
Share This Page

Mini Review - (2022) Volume 13, Issue 7

Viral Diseases: Description of HIV and AIDS

Yoshihiro Kawaoka*
1University of Tokyo, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan
*Correspondence: Yoshihiro Kawaoka, University of Tokyo, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan, Email:

Received: 02-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. ipacm-22-12930; Editor assigned: 04-Jul-2022, Pre QC No. ipacm-22-12930 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-Jul-2022, QC No. ipacm-22-12930; Revised: 25-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. ipacm-22-12930 (R); Published: 30-Jul-2022, DOI: 10.36648/1989- 8436X.


HIV; mortal immunodeficiency contagion; health issues; comorbid, marquee review


UNAIDS estimates that encyclopedically36.7 million people, including2.1 million children, were living with mortal immunodeficiency contagion (HIV) infection in 2016 [1]. The number of people who acquired HIV infection in 2016 was 1.8 million. Since the launch of the epidemic, 35 million people have failed of acquired vulnerable insufficiency pattern (AIDS) - related ails. Tuberculosis is still the leading cause of death in people living with HIV; still, deaths due to AIDS have fallen by 48 since their peak in 2005 [2]. Access to antiretroviral remedy (ART) is adding, and an estimated19.5 million people with HIV infection were entering ART in2016.1 HIV is an enveloped RNA contagion belonging to the genuslentivirus within the familyRetroviridae. The complaintcausing contagions are HIV- 1 and HIV- 2, which affect in a decline in CD4 T lymphocytes [3]. HIV- 2 is detected substantially in West Africa. Both HIV types beget an analogous clinical complaint profile. HIV- 2, still, is associated with a reduced rate of transmissibility, more gradational decline in CD4 T lymphocytes, and clinical progression.2 HIV enters cells via CD4 and the chemokineco-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4.2 The lack of natural eliminatory mechanisms of HIV following primary infection and continued viral replication throughout the course of the complaint are vital to the inauguration, establishment, and propagation of HIV infection. In a Danish population- grounded study, grown-ups with both skin infections and ‘skin conditions’ were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with HIV infection in the posterior 5 times compared to individualities without.3 further than 90 of HIV- infected individualities will develop one or further dermatological diseases during the course of their illness, either as a result of AIDS or due to the goods of treatment,5 likewise, cutaneous complaint is frequently the first incarnation of undiagnosed HIV infection or AIDS [4].


Our end was to assess both the credibility and strength of substantiation arising from methodical reviews with metaanalyses of experimental studies and physical health issues associated with mortal immunodeficiency contagion( HIV) but not acquired immunodeficiency pattern.

Accoutrements We included methodical reviews with metaanalyses of experimental studies(cross-sectional, case control, or retrospective and prospective cohort studies) that delved the relationship between HIV and any physical health issues. Specific addition criteria included methodical reviews with metaanalyses reporting data on HIV( diagnosed through tone- reports or laboratory evidence) and meta- analyses of cross-sectional or cohort studies that delved the association of HIV with any health outgrowth (eg. cardiovascular complaint, cancer, rotundity/ fat, diabetes, or metabolic conditions). Studies had to report these issues as odds rates, relative pitfalls (RRs), hazard rates, or nonstop data (formalized mean difference, weighted mean difference, or mean difference (MD). Studies could have been published in any language. Studies were barred if they were related to immunosuppression or related to supplements of HIV infection styles. We performed a marquee review of experimental studies [5]. substantiation was graded as satisfying, largely suggestive, suggestive, weak, or nonsignificant.

Description of HIV

stands for mortal immunodeficiency contagion. HIV infects and destroys cells of your vulnerable system, making it hard to fight off other conditions. When HIV has oppressively weakened your vulnerable system, it can lead to acquired immunodeficiency pattern (AIDS) [6].

Because HIV works backward to fit its instructions into your DNA, it's called a retrovirus.

Description of AIDS

AIDS is the final and most serious stage of an HIV infection. People with AIDS have veritably low counts of certain white blood cells and oppressively damaged vulnerable systems. They may have fresh ails that indicate that they've progressed to AIDS.

Effect of HIV

Without treatment, HIV infections progress to AIDS in about 10 times. It’s a myth that HIV only infects certain people. Anyone can get HIV if they’re exposed to the contagion. Having coitus without a condom or review of experimental studies. substantiation was graded as satisfying, largely suggestive, suggestive, weak, or nonsignificant [7].

Symptoms of AIDS can be caused by HIV infection, but numerous are from ails that take advantage of your weakened vulnerable system. Access to more antiviral treatments has dramatically dropped deaths from AIDS worldwide, indeed in resource-poor countries. Thanks to these life- saving treatments, utmost people with HIV in the U.S moment do not develop AIDS. undressed, HIV generally turns into AIDS in about 8 to 10 times.

Symptoms of AIDS

Symptoms of AIDS can be caused by HIV infection, but many are from illnesses that take advantage of your weakened immune system.

Access to better antiviral treatments has dramatically decreased deaths from AIDS worldwide, even in resource-poor countries. Thanks to these life-saving treatments, most people with HIV in the U.S. today don't develop AIDS. Untreated, HIV typically turns into AIDS in about 8 to 10 years [8].

When AIDS occurs, your vulnerable system has been oppressively damaged. You will be more likely to develop conditions that wouldn't generally beget illness in a person with a healthy vulnerable system. These are called opportunistic infections or opportunistic cancers.

1. The signs and symptoms of some of these infections may include

2. Sweats

3. Chills

4. Recreating fever

5. habitual diarrhea

6. Swollen lymph glands

7. patient white spots or unusual lesions on your lingo or in your mouth

8. patient, unexplained fatigue

9. Weakness

10. Weight loss

11. Skin rashes or bumps

Threat Factor Behaviours and conditions that put individualities at lesser threat of constricting HIV include Having condomless anal or vaginal coitus, having another sexually transmitted infection (STI) similar as syphilis, herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and bacterial vaginosis, engaging in dangerous use of alcohol and medicines in the environment of sexual geste, participating defiled needles, hypes and other edging in outfit and medicine results when edging in medicines, entering unsafe injections, blood transfusions and towel transplantation, and medical procedures that involve unsterile slice or piercing and passing accidental needle stick injuries, including among health workers.


From 3413 studies returned, 20 were included, covering 55 health issues. Median number of actors was 18 743 (range 403 – 225000000). Overall, 45(81.8) of the 55 unique issues reported negligibly significant summary results (P<.05) [9]. Only 5 issues(9.0; advanced liability of presence of breathlessness, advanced habitual obstructive pulmonary complaint (COPD) frequence, motherly sepsis, advanced threat of anemia, and advanced threat of all fractures among people living with HIV (PLWHIV)) showed suggestive substantiation, with P values< 10 – 3; only 3 (5.5; advanced frequence of cough incross-sectional studies, advanced prevalence of gestation- related mortality, and advanced prevalence of ischemic heart complaint among PLWHIV in cohort studies) issues showed stronger substantiation using a strict P value(< 10 – 6) [10]. None of the unique issues presented satisfying substantiation (Class I), yet 3 issues presented largely suggestive substantiation, 5 issues presented suggestive substantiation, and 37 issues presented weak substantiation.


In this study, which included 20 meta- analyses and 55 different issues that are associated with HIV infection, we set up largely suggestive substantiation that HIV infection is associated with a advanced presence of coughing incross-sectional studies and advanced pitfalls of gestation- related mortality and ischemic heart complaint in cohort studies. Suggestive substantiation was set up for a advanced liability of the presence of breathlessness, a advanced COPD frequence, motherly sepsis, a advanced threat of anemia, and a advanced threat of all fractures among PLWHIV. These conclusions are grounded on the evaluation of epidemiological substantiation credibility, which is a common approach used in a variety of exploration. similar critical appraisals of literature are necessary, as the nominal significance position of P<.05 is extensively used to claim new associations in literature. still, arising substantiation shows that results grounded on this criterion constitute weak substantiation, as also verified by our marquee review, where 45 issues were statistically significant( P<.05) but no satisfying substantiation was apparent largely suggestive substantiation was observed for only 3 issues. We set up largely suggestive substantiation that HIV infection is associated with the presence of coughing and suggestive substantiation for an association with the presence of breathlessness and the frequence of COPD. These results indicate that, indeed with the high vacuity of ART, PLWHIV experience disproportionally more habitual respiratory illness in comparison to seronegative populations. This may be linked to the exponential rise in life expectation for PLWHIV, bringing about a population of growing PLWHIV that have advanced frequency of comorbidities and respiratory ails. Also, PLWHIV in resourcerich settings have advanced frequency of smoking and lawless medicine use than seronegative people, which are linked to advanced respiratory and cardiovascular complaint frequentnes. Our analysis also showed largely suggestive substantiation of the association between HIV infection and ischemic heart complaint. Reasons for this include the forenamed high frequency of smoking and lawless medicine use within this population, but may also be related to underpinning, habitual inflammation and vulnerable activation, combined with coagulation abnormalities and atherosclerosis. Overall, following the arrival of ART, the mortality of PLWHIV attributable to cardiovascular complaint is considerable. Studies indicate that PLWHIV have a advanced threat of cardiovascular complaint, in comparison to seronegative people, with some earlier studies indicating an indeed advanced threat among PLWHIV entering protease impediments, in comparison to remedy-naive PLWHIV. Reasons for this may be linked to inflamm- growing a term that describes a habitual, lowgrade inflammation specific of natural aging that shares parallels with the patient vulnerable activation observed in PLWHIV. The performing immunosenesence coupled with “inflammaging” may dispose PLWHIV to comorbid conditions similar as cardiovascular complaint, metabolic and neurocognitive diseases, or cancer. Reports on the specific pathophysiological processes leading to lung symptoms are rare, but may be explained by the reduced capability of alveolar macrophages to maintain homeostasis.


Results show largely suggestive and suggestive substantiation for HIV and the presence of a cough, COPD, ischemic heart complaint, gestation- related mortality, motherly sepsis, and bone fractures. Public health programs should reflect and accommodate these changes, especially in light of the increases in the life expectation and the prevalence of comorbidities in this population.


  1. Marrazzo JM, Del Rio C, Holtgrave DR, Cohen MS, Kalichman SC et al. (2014) HIV prevention in clinical care settings: 2014 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. JAMA 312: 390-409.
  2. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  3. Sterne JA, Costagliola D, De Wolf F, Phillips AN, Funk MJ et al. (2009) Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in AIDS-free HIV-1-infected patients: a collaborative analysis of 18 HIV cohort studies. The Lancet 373: 1352-1363.
  4. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  5. Beard J, Feeley F, Rosen S (2009) Economic and quality of life outcomes of antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in developing countries: a systematic literature review. AIDS Care 21: 1343-1356.
  6. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  7. Attia S, Egger M, Muller M, Zwahlen M, Low N et al. (2009) Sexual transmission of HIV according to viral load and antiretroviral therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS 23: 1397รข??1404.
  8. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  9. Orrell C (2005) Antiretroviral adherence in a resource-poor setting. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2: 171-176.
  10. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  11. Malta M, Strathdee SA, Magnanini MM, Bastos FI (2008) Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among drug users: a systematic review. Addiction 103: 1242-1257.
  12. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  13. Nachega JB, Marconi VC, Van Zyl GU, Gardner EM, Preiser W et al. (2011) HIV treatment adherence, drug resistance, virologic failure: evolving concepts. Infect Disord Drug Targets 11: 167-174.
  14. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  15. Orsi F, D'Almeida C (2010) Soaring antiretroviral prices, TRIPS and TRIPS flexibilities: a burning issue for antiretroviral treatment scale-up in developing countries. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 5: 237-241.
  16. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  17. Nachega JB, Mills EJ, Schechter M (2010) Antiretroviral therapy adherence and retention in care in middle-income and low-income countries: current status of knowledge and research priorities. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 5: 70-77.
  18. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  19. Burgoyne RW, Tan DH (2008) Prolongation and quality of life for HIV-infected adults treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a balancing act. J Antimicrob Chemother61: 469-473.
  20. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

Citation: Kawaoka Y (2022) Viral Diseases: Description of HIV and AIDS. Arch Clinic Microbio, Vol.13 No. 7:194.