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Abstract

Bacterial Profile of Adult Sepsis and their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South West Ethiopia

Abera Kumalo, Tesfaye Kassa, Zewudneh S/Mariam, Deresse Daka and Andualem Henok Tadesse

Background: Sepsis is a common and highly fatal clinical syndrome that is characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to infection. The aim of this study was to determine bacterial profile of adult sepsis and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern at Jimma University Specialized Hospital.

Methods: This laboratory based prospective cross sectional study was performed in 95 adult septic cases in Jimma University specialized hospital during the period of March to June 2013. Blood cultures were performed to isolate bacteria and susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed as per standard procedures of microbiological methods. The data was analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0 software.

Results: From a total of 95 suspected septic cases involved in this research, 15 (15.8 %) were positive to eight different types of bacteria. Gram positive organisms were isolated in 53.3 % of these episodes with Staphylococcus aureus being the most frequent, while Gram negative accounted for the remaining 46.7 % with Escherichia coli being the commonest isolate among Gram negative bacteria. The isolates showed high rates of resistance to most antibiotics tested in-vitro. The ranges of resistance to Gram positive bacteria were 0 % to 100 %, and to Gram negative from 14.3 % to 85.7 %. In our study multi-drug resistance (resistance to three or more drugs) was observed in 80 % of isolates. Of this 87.5% and 71.4 % accounted for Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria respectively (P=0.438).

Conclusion: S. aureus and E. coli were the most common Gram positive and Gram negative organisms causing adult sepsis, respectively. Ciprofloxacin was the most effective compared with other drugs tested against the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Multi-drug resistance was detected in 80 % of the isolates. The detection of multi-drug resistant isolates may further limit therapeutic options. Therefore, routine bacteriological profile examination along with their antibiotic resistance patterns must be a necessary component in the management of adult sepsis. A knowledge of these patterns is essential when local polices on the use of antibiotics are being devised.