Journal of Biomedical Sciences

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Cerebellar and Hypocampal Changes Induced by Lead in Wistar Rats: The Role of Ocimum gratissimium Leaves Extract

Ibegbu O Augustine1* , Okechukwu N. Gertrude1 , Eze Martin1 , Uchewa O. Obinna1 , Ezemagu K. Uchenna1 , Egwu A. Ogugua1 , Sarah Al-Rashed2 , Ibe Usman Michael3 and Saber Batiha4

Aim: Lead is used in industrial and pharmaceutical preparations and has continued to be a major health issue in many Countries and herbs contain antioxidants that are useful in the treatment of many ailments. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of aqueous Ocimum gratissimum leaves extract on lead induced changes on the cerebellum and hippocampus of Wistar rats

Methods: Thirty-five male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each. Group 1 served as the Control and received distilled water. Group 2 received 120 mg/kg body weight of lead; Group 3 received 375 mg/kg body weight of Ocimum gratissimum. Group 4 received 120 mg/kg of lead and 375 mg/kg of Ocimum gratissimum while Group 5 received 120 mg/kg of lead and 750 mg/kg of Ocimum gratissimum. Group 6 received 375 mg/kg of Ocimum gratissimum for two weeks and 120 mg/kg of lead while Group 7 received 120 mg/kg of lead and Vitamin C. All administrations were done orally for twenty-one days and the rats were sacrificed while the cerebellum and hippocampus were removed, fixed, processed and stained using haematoxylin and eosin technique.

Results: The result showed deleterious changes on the tissues of hippocampal and cerebellar formations with distortion of the general histo-architectural and cellular arrangements while rats administered with lead and Ocimum gratissimum extract revealed positive effects on lead induced changes on the histology of the hippocampus and cerebellum dose dependently.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the aqueous Ocimum gratissimum extract showed promising effects on lead induced toxicity and as such can be used for therapeutic intervention in lead poisoning.