Translational Biomedicine

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Current Concepts in Pontine Myelinolysis: Review of Literature

Gautam Dagur and Sardar A Khan

Pontine myelinolysis (PM) is a neurological disorder represented by demyelination of the pons. It can be classified into central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) and extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM). Onset of PM is controversial, however etiology is believed to occur by rapid correction of hyponatremia. Epidemiology, clinical diagnosis, and neurological complications of PM is a rare disorder. Onset of hyponatremia due to irrigation fluid is emphasized. Differential diagnosis, histopathology, connection with autonomic neuropathy, and magnetic resonance image findings of PM is reviewed. Prevention and treatment of hyponatremia to avoid side effects and pharmacological treatments for PM is discussed. This review is to expand on the information already provided in literature and update on current literature.