Drug absorption and metabolism are crucial processes that determine the efficacy and safety of drugs in the human body. The absorption of drugs depends on their physicochemical properties, such as solubility, lipophilicity, and molecular size, as well as the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract, such as pH, motility, and permeability. Once absorbed, drugs undergo biotransformation by various enzymes, predominantly in the liver, to generate metabolites that are either inactive or active, and can be eliminated through the kidneys or bile. The metabolic fate of drugs can be influenced by genetic variations, drug-drug interactions, and disease states, leading to interindividual variability in drug response and toxicity. Understanding the mechanisms of drug absorption and metabolism is crucial for optimizing drug design and dosing, predicting drug-drug interactions, and minimizing adverse drug reactions.
Drug absorption and metabolism are complex processes that involve numerous factors and interactions. The physicochemical properties of drugs determine their ability to cross biological barriers, such as the intestinal epithelium or the blood-brain barrier, and reach their target site of action. For example, drugs that are hydrophilic and have a high molecular weight may have limited absorption, while those that are lipophilic and have a low molecular weight may be rapidly absorbed.Keywords
Drug absorption; Metabolism; Drug Development; Complex processes; Biological barriers
Published Date: 2023-05-29; Received Date: 2023-05-01