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Effect of active and passive smoking during pregnancy on its outcomes

Amasha Hadayat

Background: Smoking during pregnancy doubles the risk of having a low-birth weight baby and significantly increases the rate of perinatal morbidity and several other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Aim: To study the effects of active and passive smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in postpartum word between January and May 2009 at Jordanian private and governmental hospitals. Consecutive 223 pregnant women delivering a singleton live baby were studied. A pre-designed structured questionnaire was used to record the details of smoking, and assess the effect of smoking on women (during pregnancy / labor) and on their babies. The studied women were selected purposively to be free from chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus and pregnancy induced hypertension). Statistically significance is achieved when the p value is less than 0.05. The relation of "smoking status during pregnancy" and pregnancy outcome was determined with x2 tests. Results of the study indicated that 20.2% of the participants were active smokers, 42.1% were passive smokers, and 37.7% non-smokers. Significant statistical differences were found among the three groups in term of pregnancy outcome and adverse effect on labor. Preterm birth was greater for those who active smoker. Mean APGAR score at the fifth minutes in the active smokers were less as compared to non-smokers (8.38± 1.6, 9.10± 0.7). Conclusion: Active and passive smoker's pregnant women are at high risk of having an adverse outcome during pregnancy and labor. Based on the study results it was recommended that obstetrician and midwives should educate new and prospective parents about the risk of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy.