Robert Oziegbe Akhigbe, Anthony Chukwuka Ugwu, Michael Promise Ogolodom, Nnenna Ihua, Beatrice Ukamaka Maduka and Bolaji Israel Jayeoba
Background: Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a major public health challenge in Nigeria with an estimated prevalence of 616 cases per 100,000. The aim of this study was to identify chest radiographic patterns in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Lagos Metropolis and investigate the relationship between these patterns and hematological parameters. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross sectional study design was adopted in this study. All the investigations were performed using standard protocols and parameters by both Radiographers and Medical Laboratory Scientists with the necessary equipment’s such as static X-ray machine and SWELAB Haematology analyzer (Manufactured by Sysmex Corporation Kobe, Japan). The anthropometric variables (height, weight, and Body Mass Index BMI) for all the subjects were measured and documented. All confirmed TB subjects at the time of diagnosis were subjected to chest X-ray investigation, ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) measurement and full blood count analysis. The reports were recorded with the subject’s biodata and anthropometric variables. Results: Males were 131 (72.4%) with a mean age of 34.77 ± 9.23 years and 50 (27.6%) were females with a mean age of 32.16 ± 8.72 years. All the patients had increased Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and 98% had anaemia while about 71% of the patients presented with increased lymphocytes count. The radiographic patterns identified in this study were consolidation (57.5%) as highest and the least was pleural effusion (1.1%). The result of correlation analysis of ESR, WBC and PCV (Packed Cell Volume) showed no statistically significant correlation between ESR (r=-0.649, p=0.16), PCV (r=0.549, p=0.26), WBC (White Blood Cell) (r=-0.325, p=0.53) and the various chest radiographic patterns. Conclusion: This study revealed that the most predominant chest radiographic pattern is consolidation with pleural effusion as the least. There was no statistically significant relationship between the various chest radiographic patterns and hematological parameters in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Lagos Metropolis.