Aamir Shahzad , Craig S McLachlan , Judith Gault , Randall J Cohrs , Xiangdong Wang , Gottfried Kohler
Translational medicine results from collaborations between clinics, researchÂ hospitals, governments, academics, and small to large scale industry where diseasesÂ (infectious, acquired, or genetic) are identified, candidate therapeutics optimizedÂ and tested in cell culture, humanized small animal models, and in clinical trial. TheÂ goal of translational medicine is to bring to market safe and effective therapeuticsÂ in a timely and cost efficient manner. However, clinician/scientists critically trainedÂ in translational research are few and more programs to foster their developmentÂ are required. Herein the state of translational medicine in leading countries (UK,Â Netherlands, Austria, Singapore, China, Australia, Japan, India, Malaysia, SouthÂ Korea and the United States) as well as joint EU efforts is described. A summary ofÂ programs, research projects, funding agencies, national support levels and uniqueÂ opportunities within each nation are presented. The future of translational medicineÂ and interagency collaborations is promising, provided highly trained translationalÂ medicine experts can be trained. That is to produce translational leaders that engageÂ the patient, the laboratory, industry and government.