The pulmonary administration approach has been extensively utilized for the treatment of both local lung diseases like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and respiratory infections as well as systemic disorders like diabetes. The majority of medications taken by inhalation pass quickly through the lungs and have brief therapeutic effects. By reducing the number of times a patient is given a medication, prolonged pulmonary exposure from inhaled medications may not only improve therapeutic outcomes but also clinical benefits for patients. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical strategies for increasing the pulmonary exposure of inhaled medications. It begins by providing an overview of the numerous physiological and pathophysiological challenges that must be overcome in order to create inhaled medications that are exposed to the lung for an extended period of time. It then moves on to discuss the most recent advancements in a number of methods that can circumvent these challenges. In conclusion, a summary of the uses of inhaled medications that are exposed to the lung for an extended period of time for the treatment of various diseases and the safety concerns associated with various methods of exposing the lungs to inhaled medications are provided.
Published Date: 2022-11-28; Received Date: 2022-11-01