Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience

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Latin American Delphi Consensus on Vascular Cognitive Impairment: Definitions, Clinical Features, Pathophysiology, Prevention and Treatment

Alberto J Mimenza Alvarado*, Carlos G Cantú Brito, Gustavo C Roman, Pietro Gareri, Sara G Aguilar Navarro, Jose L Ruiz Sandoval, Juan M Calleja Castillo, Carolina Velazquez, Gustavo Pradilla Ardila, María S Caceres Merino, Juan C Duran Quiroz, Nilton C Capuñay, Ciro Gaona, Jose S Ramírez, Carlos Arteaga Vasquez, Hector Franco, Felipe Villareal, Hector Orrego Castellanos, Xinia M Jiménez Campos and Julio J Secades

Cerebral vascular disease (CVD) represents the second cause in years of life lost, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 study. The global report on Alzheimer's disease 2015 estimates that in Latin America there are 9.2 million cases of dementia, with a prevalence of 8.2%. Undoubtedly, Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent cause, followed by vascular dementia (VD) with 15% of the cases, although global data are unknown in Latin America.

Objective: To analyze and present the current evidence on the classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of vascular cognitive impairment.

Methodology: A group of experts met in Miami, Florida, in April 2016. The group included Neurologists, Geriatricians and Psychiatrists from the following countries: Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Peru, Spain, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Italy, the United States, Dominican Republic, Honduras and Nicaragua. The Delphi method was used to review available information (provided months before the meeting), in relation to assigned topics: definition of Cognitive Vascular Impairment (CVI), risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis (neuropsychological and imaging) and treatment. For the allocation of evidence and recommendation of available treatments, the GRADE system was used.

The working groups analyzed and discussed available evidence on CVI concerning proposed definitions, risk factors and diagnostic elements. Subsequently, the conclusions of each of the working groups were drafted, which were reviewed by each of the authors and by the rest of the study groups until a global consensus was reached. Once this process was completed, the process of external validation and preparation of the final document was carried out.

The results of this consensus allow the incorporation of the opinion and experience of physicians of different specialties in Latin America regarding the vascular cognitive impairment.