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Leptin Correlation with Obesity, Diabetes and Gender in a Population from Faisalabad, Pakistan

Syeda Sadia Najam, Fazli Rabbi Awan, Mehboob Islam, Mohsin Khurshid, Abdul Rehman Khan, Tehmina Siddique, Maryam Zain, Ahmed Bilal

Background: Leptin is an important adipokine hormone released from adipose tissue which is associated with obesity and diabetes in different populations.

Objective: To investigate the serum leptin concentrations for its correlation with diabetes, obesity and gender in a small population from Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Methods: From our sample collection of more than 500 subjects for metabolic disorders research, we have carefully selected 80 subjects for the present case-control comparison study. These subjects were grouped on the basis of diabetes, obesity and gender status. Equal number of subjects was taken for each comparison group to minimize the effects of confounding factors. For diabetes, these eighty subjects were divided into two groups (n=40 non-diabetic and n=40 type 2 diabetics). While considering obesity, these eighty subject were divided on the basis of their Body Mass Index (n=40 non-obese and n=40 obese). For gender based analysis, the groups based on diabetes and obesity were made (n=20 in each sub-group) and further analyzed while keeping n=10 males and n=10 females in each sub-group. Serum leptin and biochemical analytes were measured for all subjects and data were analyzed by SPSS 18.0 software.

Results: Leptin levels were found significantly low in nonobese as compared to obese subjects (Mean ± SD: 5.2 ± 2.0 vs. 7.1 ± 2.1 ng/ml, p<0.001). No significant difference was found for non-diabetics and diabetics (6.4 ± 2.4 vs. 5.9 ± 2.2 ng/ml, p=0.35). Gender dimorphism showed significant differences for leptin (p<0.0001). Spearman’s analysis showed strong correlation between leptin and obesity (r=0.43, p=0.0001), gender (r=0.24, p=0.02) irrespective of obesity or diabetes.

Conclusion: The leptin levels were high in obese and female subjects.