Archives of Clinical Microbiology

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Mycobacterium bovis Prevalence in Humans Does Not Differ between Regions in Burkina Faso

Serge Diagbouga, Christelle Nadembèga, Zékiba Tarnagda, Arthur Djibougou, Noellie Henry, Rosalie Toé Bicaba, Mathurin Dembélé, Adjima Combary, Souba Diandé, Martial Ouédraogo, Guy Aurégan and Philippe Van de Perre

Background: In 1996, tuberculosis detection rate was higher in Oudalan (Sahel region) than in other provinces in Burkina Faso. Cattle breeding, a major activity of the local population, may favor exposure of humans to bovine tuberculosis.

Objectives: (i) to isolate and identify M. bovis among new cases of tuberculosis with positive culture in the Sahel (Gorom-Gorom and Dori); the Center (Ouagadougou) and the Western (Bobo-Dioulasso) regions of the country; (ii) to investigate susceptibility of isolated strains to anti-tuberculosis.

Methods: (i) collection of sputum from newly TB patients with a positive smear during a prospective study carried out in 1998 in the North, Central and Western region of the country and transferred at the Mycobacteriology Laboratory, (ii) optimization of operational procedures: (iii) mycobacteria strains's isolation on 3 different media (Loweinstein Jensen (LJ), LJ without glycerine and LJ supplemented with pyruvate; (iv) identification of the tuberculosis complex according to criteria such as: bacillus growth time, colony appearance, biochemical test results, bacilli growth with pyrazinamide or thiophene carboxylate hydrazide, or D-cycloserine; (v) performing antibiograms.

Results: Among the isolated strains, M. bovis represented 6.2% (2/30) in Gorom-Gorom, 0% (0/18) in Dori, 2.6% (3/109) in Ouagadougou and 2.9% (2/65) in Bobo-Dioulasso. Sixty nine percent (31/45) of strains were susceptible to the main anti-tuberculosis drugs, 13 strains presented single or combined resistance and one strain was multidrug-resistant.

Conclusion: We showed that M. bovis disease is prevalent in all the studied regions but at a relatively low rate. The transhumance of from the north to the west practiced by the breeders could explain why it was found M. bovis in a similar rate as in Ouagdougou and Bobo-Dioulasso where livestock activity is less intense than in Gorom-Gorom.