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Patterns of Traumatic Head Injury among Patients that Underwent Craniofacial Computed Tomography Scan in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria

Michael Promise Ogolodom, Lekpa Kingdom David, Okechukwu Felix Erondu, Mark Chukwudi Okeji and Awajimijan Nathaniel Mbaba

Background: Traumatic head injuries (THI) are of great public health concern as it account for over 40% of morbidities presenting at emergency departments of any hospital annually. It is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the global population especially among those below 44 years of age. The severity of THI ranges from minor to severe depending on the form of the injuries which could be extra-axial, intra-axial and secondary and fractures. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of traumatic head injury diagnosed on computed tomography scan in our locality. Materials and methods: All craniofacial CT investigations were performed on General Electric machines using standard parameters and protocols. We adopted retrospective research design. All radiological CT reports of patients who underwent craniofacial investigations from January, 2010 to November, 2017 and met the inclusion criteria were selected randomly using structured proforma. Approval for this study was obtained from the management of the study centers. Results: Out of 743 data assessed, 64.88% (n=482) had traumatic head injuries. Road traffic accidents account for 43.3% (n=209) of the causes followed by assault 31.53% (n=152). Both fractures and intra-axial lesions were highest 23.24% (n=112) respectively. Males were 62.64% (n=302) while females 37.34% (n=180) out of 482 of traumatic head injuries. Age group 16-30 years were 34.03% (n=164) as highest and the least was age group 61-75 years of age 8.71 (n=42). Conclusion: High incidence of traumatic head injury was noted in our study. High fractures cases with increased intra-axial lesions were also documented in this study. Head injuries were common in males than females and young adults were mostly affected. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of head injuries in our locality.