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Socio-Demographic and Other Determinants of Teen Pregnancies in the Tamale Metropolis: A Community-Based Unmatched Case-Control Study.

Richard Opoku Asare*, Ruth Nimota Nukpezah, Felicia Azowine, Lydia Gyamfuah Cheremeh, Adombire Salome Ayinpoka, Obed Duah Kwaku Asumadu and Emelia Mills

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the socio-demographic determinants and to ascertain other factors leading to teen pregnancies in the Tamale Metropolis.

Methodology: This study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional study design, using an unmatched case-control technique with a quantitative approach. The case and control groups for this study were adolescents who were between 13 years and 19 years. The study was conducted in the Tamale Metropolis from April 2021 to June 2021. The metropolis is divided into four sub-districts. Almost 36.4% of the population is below 15 years. The exclusion criteria were girls below 13 years, and who have been pregnant before, and those same age group who have aborted before term; and male adolescents from 13 years to 19 years of age.

A multi-stage sampling design was used for the study. STATCALC formula for Epi Info was used to calculate the sample size of 291 for unmatched case-control groups of pregnant and non-pregnant study participants. A well-structured self-administered questionnaire in English language was used to interview participants. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data by summarizing them into percentages and frequencies. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 25 and Microsoft Excel. Chisquare test was used to measure the association between the outcome and predictor variables. A p-value<0.05 was indicated an association between the variables.

Results: When participants socio-demographic risk factors in case group (85, 44.3%) and control group (107, 55.7%) by adolescent pregnancy were determined, data proved statistically significant difference (?2=21.29; p<0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference between case and control groups (?2=0.56; p=0.55) on social media usage influencing adolescent pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate analyses on marital status respectfully showed a statistically significant difference in terms of co-habiting (Crude odds: 0.04-0.36, p<0.001; AOR: 0.01-0.59, p=0.02) and married (Crude odds: 0.24-0.20), p<0.001; AOR: 0.01-0.22, p<0.001).

Conclusion: Despite strong religious affiliation, there exists teenage pregnancy in the Tamale Metropolis as a result of consensual sex.

Recommendation: There is the need to publicly intensify sex education among the youth as well as the various religious sects by the health authorities within the metropolis.

Published Date: 2022-02-21; Received Date: 2022-01-07