Yanikoglu F, Durmusoglu O, Tagtekin D and Hayran O
Since it is difficult to obtain a well-bonded restoration at root surface, it becomes important to detect root caries at the initial stage. The aim of this study was to detect and to quantify a root surface lesion at the initial stage and quantify the amount of remineralization. The additional aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the recent diagnostic devices (Ultrasound, Quantitative Light Induced Fluorescence (QLF), DIAGNOdent), compared to Confocal Laser Microscopy (CLSM), for detection of the initial root caries in vitro. The specimens (4 mm × 2 mm × 3 mm) (n: 64) were prepared from the selected extracted human teeth. Before demineralization with in vitro microbial caries model, specimens’ halves (baseline) were covered with nail varnish. The specimens were evaluated by the following nondestructive methods: Ultrasound, QLF, DIAGNOdent systems and a destructive method; CLSM (n=5) after demineralization and remineralization. Following demineralization and obtaining the measurements by the systems, the specimens were randomly distributed into three groups (n: 21, each group) for remineralization. In the first group, the specimens were kept in artificial saliva (0 ppm fluoride); in the second group, 1100 ppm fluoride was applied (2 × 1); and in the third group both 1100 ppm fluoride (2 × 1), and Bifluoride12 varnish were applied once a week, for five weeks. All systems differentiated demineralization from baseline, including Ultrasound. All systems also differentiated in assessing the remineralization from baseline. There was difference between demineralization and remineralization between the control method, Confocal microscopic evaluations, and Ultrasound. Remineralization differences of 1100 ppm F toothpaste and/or varnish were found to be different from demineralization by the QLF system. DIAGNOdent only noticed remineralization by 1100 ppm Fluoride and varnish applied group compared to demineralization. Actually both remineralization groups were not found as different from each other by all detection systems here. There was not any significant difference between demineralization and 0 ppm fluoride groups by all methods as well. It was concluded that demineralization of root surface incipient lesions could be detected by the novel nondestructive methods of Ultrasound, DIAGNOdent and QLF in vitro. Remineralization of initial root caries lesion may require different treatment regimen in in vitro studies.