Molecular Enzymology and Drug Targets

  • Journal h-index: 5
  • Journal CiteScore: 0.46
  • Journal Impact Factor: 0.45
  • Average acceptance to publication time (5-7 days)
  • Average article processing time (30-45 days) Less than 5 volumes 30 days
    8 - 9 volumes 40 days
    10 and more volumes 45 days
Awards Nomination 20+ Million Readerbase
Indexed In
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Publons
  • Google Scholar
  • Secret Search Engine Labs
  • Zenodo
Share This Page

Mini Review - (2023) Volume 9, Issue 2

By Preventing -Glucosidase and -Amylase Noncompetitively, Phenols from Sterculia Nobilis Smith Pericarp In-Products Postpone the Digestion of Carbohydrates

Pooja Bhatiya*
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, South Africa
*Correspondence: Pooja Bhatiya, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, South Africa, Email:

Received: 03-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. Ipmedt -23-13669; Editor assigned: 05-Apr-2023, Pre QC No. P-13669; Reviewed: 19-Apr-2023, QC No. Q-13669; Revised: 21-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. R-13669; Published: 28-Apr-2023


The functional activity and phytochemical makeup of Sterculia Nobilis Smith pericarp, a byproduct of this tropical and subtropical fruit, have not received much attention. The LC-ESIMS/MS-MRM technique was employed in this study to analyse 16 phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction of the Sterculia Nobilis Smith pericarp extract on a qualitative and quantitative level. The main phenolic in the EAF were luteolin-7-O-glucoside, epicatechin gallate, and apigetrin. Models of inhibition of -glucosidase and -amylase were used to investigate the hypoglycemic action of EAF. With half-inhibitory concentration levels, EAF inhibited -glucosidase and -amylase activities in a reversible and non-competitive manner. The EAF's enzyme inhibition mechanism was investigated using spectroscopic techniques. The outcomes demonstrated that EAF changed the secondary structure and microenvironment of the enzymes' tyrosine and tryptophan residues. This study shows that the pericarp of Sterculia Nobilis Smith can be used as a low-cost raw material for the manufacturing of functional meals. Internal organ damage brought on by hyperglycemia can result in heart attacks, kidney failure, stroke, blindness, and kidney failure. As a result, diabetes has grown to be a serious hazard to human health and must be treated with long-term usage of hypoglycemic medications. These medications do have negative effects, though; include weight gain, upper respiratory tract infections, hypoglycemia, and gastrointestinal issues.


Sterculia Nobilis Smith Pericarp; Phenolics; A-Glucosidase; A-Amylase; Postprandial Hyperglycemia


As a result, changing one's lifestyle has received increasing attention as a means of managing and preventing diabetes [1]. The American Diabetes Association advises dietary and nutritional measures to regulate blood sugar levels [2]. The two most significant enzymes involved in the digestion of carbohydrates in the gut are -amylase and -glucosidase. The first starch-hydrolysing enzyme in the digestive tract is salivary –amylase [3]. By cleaving glycosidic bonds, salivary and pancreatic -amylase can transform starch into oligosaccharides [4]. Linkages four catalytic subunits with and hydrolysing activity make up –glucosidase [5]. The small intestine's brush border has an enzyme called glucosidase that can break down oligosaccharides into absorbable monosaccharides [6]. Since postprandial hyperglycemia and -amylase and -glucosidase are intimately connected, it is thought that inhibiting these enzymes will successfully lower blood sugar levels [7]. Various fruits and vegetables contain phenolic, which are necessary components of the human diet. By using LC-ESI-MS/MS-MRM technology, we quantitatively analysed the phenolic in the S. Nobilis Smith pericarp's ethyl acetate fraction in this work [8]. We also looked at the EAF's possible hypoglycemic effects by assessing how much it inhibited the activity of -amylase and -glucosidase in vitro [9]. The inhibitory mechanism of EAF on -amylase and -glucosidase was clarified using kinetic equations, fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism [10]. This study's goals were to maximise the use of the leftovers from S. Nobilis Smith fruit processing and to raise awareness of these issues. Regarding the pericarp of S. Nobilis Smith's nutritional value. According to Section, the enzymatic processes were set up. By monitoring the reaction rate in the presence of EAF with various concentrations of -glucosidase solution, the reversibility of the inhibition was examined. Similar to this, different concentrations of -amylase solution were mixed with EAF solutions at 0, 1, 2, and 4 mg/mL, and the reaction rate was monitored to see whether EAF's suppression of -amylase activity was reversible.


The Michaelis-Menten equation determines the kind of inhibition. The association between the various substrate concentrations and reaction rate was investigated while the EAF concentration was fixed. The substrate concentrations of the enzymes -glucosidase and 1.808 mg/ mL and -amylase were and 1.808 mg/mL, respectively. Competitive inhibition, non-competitive inhibition, uncompetitive inhibition, and mixed inhibition are known kinds of enzyme inhibition. By adding EAF solution to various final concentrations, -amylase was produced and titrated, and the fluorescence intensity was evaluated using a Flouromax-4 fluorescence spectrometer. The -glucosidase system's final EAF concentrations were Fluorescence was monitored at an excitation wavelength of 280 nm and an emission wavelength range of 290 nm-500 nm after the mixed solutions had been equilibrated for 3 min. The excitation and emission wavelengths were separated by a slit by a distance of 2.5 nm. Instrument characteristics as well as synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy techniques have been altered. The distances between the wavelengths of excitation and emission were set at 15 nm and 60 nm, respectively. The wavelengths ranged. The quenching constant KS was determined using the Stern-Volmert equation to analyse the quenching type of -glucosidase and -amylase by the EAF. Tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine are examples of aromatic amino acids found in proteins that can glow at a wavelength of 280 nm. The intrinsic fluorescence intensity of a protein decreases when it physically or chemically interacts with a tiny molecule because the electrons in the higher-energy orbitals will move back to the lower-energy orbitals. Fluorescence quenching can therefore be used to examine how proteins and their ligands interact. The maximal emission wavelengths of -glucosidase and -amylase, respectively, are 335 nm and 347 nm, as shown in. With rising EAF concentrations, fluorescence intensity significantly decreased, indicating interactions.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus is thought to be preventable with the method of limiting carbohydrate digestibility by regulating the activity of two hydrolyzing enzymes to regulate postprandial hyperglycemia. Therefore, it is advised to consume foods high in inhibitors of hydrolyzing enzymes while using diet as a diabetic treatment. Whole cereal products are becoming more and more popular due to their ability to lower plasma glucose levels. Although the processes underlying the advantages of whole grain in relation to T2DM are still unclear, they almost certainly involve bioactive substances. It has been demonstrated that phenolic chemicals, peptides, nonstarch polysaccharides, and lipids originating from cereals limit the activities of amylase and glucosidase. Whole grains appear to function as dietary solutions in the management of postmeal hyperglycemia for T2DM thanks to their inhibitors of hydrolyzing enzymes. An updated overview of the consequences given is provided in this review. on the digestion of carbohydrates by components from cereal. It implies that there is some evidence that eating whole grains can help to improve T2DM by glucosidase and amylase activity inhibition. It has been suggested that increased postprandial blood glucose is related to carbohydrate digestion. Limiting the activity of intestinal enzymes that break down carbohydrates is one method for lowering postprandial hyperglycemia. The primary enzyme, amylase, catalyses the hydrolysis of 1,4-glucan linkages found in starch, maltodextrins, and other similar carbohydrates, converting the polymeric substrate into shorter oligomers.


  1. Naylor AR, Bown MJ. Stroke after cardiac surgery and its association with asymptomatic carotid disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011; 41: 607-24.
  2. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  3. Newman M, Kirchner J, Phillips Bute B, et al. longitudinal assessment of neurocognitive function after coronary-artery bypasses surgery. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 395-402.
  4. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  5. Van Dijk D, Jansen E, Hijman R, et al. Cognitive outcome after off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2002; 287: 1405-12.
  6. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  7. Ruzza, Andrea. Nonpsychotic mental disorder after open heart surgery. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2014; 22: 374.
  8. Google Scholar Crossref, Indexed at

  9. Dare Anna J, Grimes Caris E, Gillies Rowan, et al. Global surgery: defining an emerging global health field. The Lancet. 2014; 384: 2245-2247.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  11. Farmer Paul E, Kim Jim Y. Surgery and global health: a view from beyond the OR. World Journal of Surgery. 2008; 32: 533-536.
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  13. Bath M, Bashford T, Fitzgerald JE, et al. what is 'global surgery'? Defining the multidisciplinary interface between surgery, anaesthesia and public health. BMJ Global Health. 2019; 4: 1808.
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  15. Makary MA, Segev DL, Pronovost PJ, et al. Frailty as a predictor of surgical in older patients. J Am Coll Surg. 2010; 210: 901-08.
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  17. Yang Michael M H, Hartley Rebecca L, Leung Alexander A, et al. Preoperative predictors of poor acute postoperative pain control: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2019; 9: 25091.
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  19. Sharma, Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi, et al. Permanent His bundle pacing: shaping the future of physiological ventricular pacing. Nature Reviews Cardiology. 2020; 17: 22-36.
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref