Atul Arya, Surbhi Rana , Sumeet Gupta and Lakhwinder Singh
Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Endothelial dysfunction has been posited to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN).The vascular complications of diabetes impose a huge burden on the management of this disease. The higher incidence of cardiovascular complications and the unfavorable prognosis among diabetic individuals who develop such complications have been correlated to the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and associated endothelial dysfunction. Both hyperglycemia, as well as the metabolic consequences of glucose dysregulation, are thought to lead to endothelial cell dysfunction. In this regard, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a central role in dysfunction. This review will focus on the mechanisms and therapeutics that specifically target endothelial dysfunction in the context of a diabetic setting.