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Factores de Riesgo para Leishmaniasis Cutánea: Revisión Sistemática de Estudios de Casos y Controles

Liliana López-Carvajal, Jennifer Julieth Román-Barrientos, Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias*

Introduction: The predominant research in cutaneous leishmaniasis is the experimental one.
Objective: To analyze the case-control studies in cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Methods: Systematic review in Pubmed, Science Direct, Scielo, Lilacs, Embase, Ebsco, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Interscience with three search strategies and a protocol according to the PRISMA guide, guaranteeing completeness and reproducibility.
Results: We included 34 studies with 2,706 cases and 7,511 controls, published between 1987 - 2016; 52.9% of America and 32.4% of Asia. 65.7% evaluated immunological factors such as HLA, TNF and IFN. Less than 30% evaluated sociodemographic, behavioral, domiciliary or work factors. The greatest strength of association was for low income (OR 28.7), excessive time in the open air (OR 24.1), family history of leishmaniasis (OR=17.8), pond less than 150 m from the house (OR=15.1), houses with plaster walls (OR 18.3) and ground floors (OR 6.1); sleep without mosquito net (OR 11.1), not protect from insects (OR 8.3) and low schooling (OR 5.0)
There is a high heterogeneity in the risk factors studied, which evidences the need to improve observational research. The factors with a greater strength of association can constitute axes of the prevention, control and attention of the disease.