Nadia N. Hasan* and Nawfal K. Khiro
Background: Breast cancer is responsible for the death of millions of women worldwide every year. Several clinical, diagnostic and pathological techniques have been introduced to get early detection of the disease. One of these techniques was developed to detect extracellular vesicle exosomes and phosphoproteins as a product of cancer cells.
Objective: Investigating the role of exosome and (PRKG1) in detection breast cancer in patients with breast tumors.
Subjects and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on women. They were divided into 3 groups, group me of patients with malignant breast tumor, group II of patients with benign breast tumor, and group III which of matched healthy subjects as control. Ten milliliters of blood sample was obtained from patients submitted for surgery (mastectomy or lumpectomy) by venipuncture just before operation, they were collected during the period between Aprils -December 2018 in Al-Imamain Al-Kadhymeaain Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq. Plasma Exosomes and exosomal (PRKG1) were measured by ELIZA technique. Serum Cancer antigen 15-3 measured by ELIZA technique.
Results: There is a significant difference in the levels of exosomes and the (PRKG1) between breast cancer group and control group (p> 0.001). Also significant differences found between the breast cancer and benign group, and between benign and control group. In the concentration of antigen 15-3, a significant difference found between the breast cancer group control groups (p= 0.003), whereas there are no significant differences observed between the breast cancer and benign group (p=0.187) and between benign and control group (p=0.205).
Conclusions: Exosomes and exosomal (PRKG1) levels would be very good biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer and also can differentiate between malignant and benign breast tumors acting as a non-invasive liquid biopsy. Cancer antigen 15-3 marker has many limitations.
Published Date: 2023-01-30; Received Date: 2022-12-30