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Trend and Associated Factors of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Rifampicin Resistance in Southwest Ethiopia: Institutional Based Retrospective Study

Admasu Haile, Kassahun Haile and Sofiya Shemsu

Background: There is scarcity of data on the trends of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and refampicin resistance in southern part of Ethiopia. This study was aimed to assess the trend of pulmonary tuberculosis and refampicin resistance and associated factors among patients in South-west Ethiopia.

Methods: Health institution-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Wolkite town Health center from January 2016 to 2020. Data was collected retrospectively from the GeneXpert™ TB registration book using a data extraction checklist and directly entered into SPSS version 21 and analyzed. The results were summarized using descriptive statistics, tables, and figures. Bivariate and multi-variant regression analysis was done to measure the association between dependent and independent variables. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Result: total of 3286 participants had complete Gene X-pert MTB/Rif assay result which included in statistical analysis. The overall detection rate of TB was 27.3 % (899/3286) and the prevalence of TB was higher in males 500 (55.6%) than females 399 (43.4%). From total of confirmed TB cases, 137 (15.2%) participants developed rifampicin resistance. Residence, registration type for TB, reason for diagnosis, HIV status and year of TB diagnosis were independent variables significantly associated with outcome variable (Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection) with p<0.05. The significant rifampicin resistance was detected in 2019 which was 70 from total of 137 confirmed rifapamcin cases.

Conclusion: In this study, the trends of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance were great in new registered groups, rural residents and HIV positive individuals. Therefore, maximizing early visit to health institutions and detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and enhancing active health education and intervention for tuberculosis are forwarded to reduce the threat of disease. There is still need for active health education campaigns and government intervention.