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Mini Review - (2023) Volume 17, Issue 1

Complexity and Microorganism Affection of Sedate Freshwater Fish Pathogens

Luxeus Arch*
Department of Aquaculture Faculty of Fisheries, Science & Technology, Indonesia
*Correspondence: Luxeus Arch, Department of Aquaculture Faculty of Fisheries, Science & Technology, Indonesia, Email:

Received: 02-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. ipfs-23-13402; Editor assigned: 04-Jan-2023, Pre QC No. ipfs-23-13402; Reviewed: 18-Jan-2023 Revised: 23-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. ipfs-23-13402; Published: 31-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.36648/1307-234X.23.17.104


Toxin-producing microalgae are responsible for numerous harmful algal blooms. Outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) pose the greatest threat to the fisheries and public health of Patagonian fjords. Toxicity results of this study. Concholepas are harvested from his Guaitecas Islands in Patagonia, Chile. The aim is to investigate how freezing and removal of the dye affects the detoxification process. 150 samples less than 90 mm in length were collected from this area. Live specimens were transported to a processing facility where they were measured, eviscerated, and halved. One of the parts was hand depigmented and the legs were cut in half. Mouse bioassay (MBA) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and post-column oxidation (HPLC-FLD PCOX) were used to assess PSP toxicity in edible tissue from each paw. Local species toxicity ranged from 30 to 146 g STX-diHCL equivalents per site (CV = 43.83%) and 5.96 to 216.3 g STX-diHCL equivalents per site (CV = 34.63%) using MBA and HPLC. was. A generalized linear model found a negative correlation between individual body weight and toxicity. GTX2, STX, and neoSTX2 were most prevalent (>95%), as indicated by the toxicological profile. Once the pigment is removed, PSP's toxicity can be reduced by up to 90% and it remains an effective detox method. There was no discernible pattern produced by the freezing process in pigmented muscle. MBA does not attenuate the toxicity of PSP, but PCOX does (p<0.05). The study also describes the implications for management and commercialization of smallscale fisheries.


Pigment; Chilean Patagonia; Mba; HPLC-FLD PCOX


Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a neurotoxic syndrome caused by eating seafood contaminated with saxitoxin (STX) and its analogues. These substances can cause everything from mild tingling and numbness of the lips to fatal respiratory paralysis [1]. Several species of marine dinoflagellates of the genus Centrodinium biosynthesize them. To date, over 57 toxins structurally similar to STX have been identified. These fall into six categories:i) GTX5, GTX6 and other C1-C4 N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins; ii) decarbamoyl-derived toxins (dcGTX1-4, dcNeo and dcSTX); iii) carbamoyl toxins GTX1-4, neoSTX and STX. iv) deoxydecarbamoyl-derived toxins (doSTX, doGTX2-3) v) hydroxybenzoyl-derived toxins (GC1-6) and (vi) M-toxin, a derivative of 11-hydroxy-STX. Due to the high water filtration rate, mussels can accumulate high concentrations of these compounds during flowering of PST-producing dinoflagellates [2]. Exceeds the regulatory limit of 100 g1 equivalent to 80 g STX. Therefore, the major transvectors for human poisoning may be these. Mussels ingest toxins produced by dinoflagellate cells. This toxin transfer can alter the initial toxicity profile of dinoflagellates and, in some cases, increase the toxicity of contaminated shellfish through various species-specific biotransformation pathways (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) [3]. There is a nature. They are first stored in the digestive glands before being partially transported through the bloodstream to other organs or non-visceral tissues. Carnivorous snails can accumulate toxins in the tissues of other mollusks in the marine environment, most of which are bivalves that pass through filters. In Japan, PST is Rapana venosa, Turbo marmoratus, T. argyrostomus, Tectus pyramis, Natica vitellus, N. tumidus, Oliva hirasei, O. ligniaria, and O. Anurata from Vietnam. PST and human poisoning have also been associated with consumption of Nassarius succinctus and other species of the same genus, Oliva mustelina, Miniaceoliba miniacea, and In South America, on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, two species of carnivorous gastropods, Admelon beckii and Zidona dufresnei, have been identified as his PST [4]. His PST reports in Chile have traditionally focused primarily on his two species of gastropods that are commercially exploited in Patagonia [5].

Their maximal toxicity values in digestive glands were 14,057 and 9164 g STX eq 100 g-1, respectively, and their maximal toxicity values in foot tissue were 31 and 737 g STX eq 100 g-1, respectively.

Endemic to the Pacific coast of South America, found everywhere from Lobos Ajuela Island in Peru (6°27'S) to the sub-Antarctic region (Cape Horn, 56°00'S). S). Also known as 'loco' or 'false abalone' in Chile, this snail is an extremely valuable resource for small-scale artisanal fishermen, with approximately 4,500 tonnes being caught annually. Most of it has traditionally been frozen and shipped to Asian markets. Since the 1990s, loco has been the primary mode of the Benthic Resource Management and Development Areas (AMERB) system, based on the principles of co-management and territorial use rights of fisheries (TURF) [6]. Currently, licensed fishing organizations can only take locomotives out of AMERB if they are under state control according to individual management plans [7].

The Coquimbo area with an annual production of 1041 tons and the Coquimbo area with an annual production of 901 tons are the most used landing sites along the Chilean coast. Different PST values were observed in both regions. PST toxicity is unlikely to have a significant impact on the cultivation and use of this species in Coquimbo. Because we have never exceeded regulatory limits [8]. However, C. concholepas populations were found to be more virulent in Patagonia, especially in the Aisen and Magallanes regions where harvesting has long been restricted. As a result, the landing of benthic resources in these areas has decreased significantly in recent decades. In fact, 2016 saw the worst his PST toxicity event in Chile's history, affecting affected species in aquaculture, fisheries and mollusks. The event had a significant impact on the local economy. During the outbreak, the C. concholepas population remained contaminated for more than his 18 months. This indicates that this gastropod is a slow-moving organism [9].


In Asian markets such as Taiwan, Hong Kong and Japan, it is mainly traded as a substitute for abalone (Abalone spp.). Raw frozen (55%) and canned (44%) processing lines are used for muscle sales and export. For the raw frozen line, the muscle should contain a greenish-blackish pigment that covers the entire tissue. This is because this pigment gives the product a new look.In addition, the mucous membranes covering the feet are involved in fusion and necessary for attachment and recruitment [10]. Shumway described a common process by which carnivorous snails accumulate toxins. As part of its feeding strategy, C. concholepas manipulates its legs to burrow into and attack live prey. The circulatory system transports toxins from the digestive glands to the tissues of the feet, especially pigments, after they have been ingested by prey and temporarily stored there. Mucus plays an important role in the distribution of toxins throughout the paw and possibly in retention of PST toxins over time. For this reason, both this study and the Compagnon study recorded toxin levels in the paws and digestive glands [11].

The evisceration, freezing, and high-temperature processes are some of the mechanisms described to reduce the toxicity of the paralytic toxin in mussels to levels below safe levels for human consumption.Pectene in scallops • Some products, such as Maximus, can be eviscerated and heat treated to reduce toxicity from 300g to levels below detection limits [12].

Herbivorous and carnivorous snails also use detoxification mechanisms to remove the most toxic tissue or heat processes during the production process.

Gut, epithelium, mucus secretions and muscle the abalone Mycobacterium tuberculosis epithelium is 300 times more virulent than animal muscle and stomach contents. As a result, removing that particular body part, especially on the canning line, may represent an opportunity for detoxification. It shows a reduction of about 90%. The brushing method used by Seger et al. Loco reduced the toxicity of the abalone H. laevigata by approximately 90% from approximately 200g STX diHCL eq 100g1 to 50g STX diHCL eq 100g1. This reduction was achieved using the HPLC-FLDPCOX method and was not detected using the MBA method. This suggests that the pigment is associated with highest toxicity in leg muscles.As a result, on the canning line, removing that particular body part is again used as a detoxification strategy. It is possible. During the detoxification phase, the following factors may also explain the negative relationship between individual loc weights and pedotoxin concentrations determined by PCOX analysis [13].

Either an allometric relationship between body weight or the surface area exposed to the foot (pigmentation zone), or a possible effect of matrix in samples taken from the smallest individuals. This last point needs further investigation.

The most economically important component of the product is the quick freezing process line. As a result, the effects of freezing on concentrations and toxicological profiles need to be evaluated. Freezing is rarely used in the canning industry because toxins are removed by thawing the water rather than freezing it.The PCOX method provides interesting results on individuals from the Guaitecas archipelago [14]. However, the MBA method did not show a significant effect of the freezing process on reducing toxicity in this study. The important thing is to apply the glaze to the raw freezing process line using fresh water after it has been frozen for several hours to prevent the product from drying out. Furthermore, the product's toxicological profile was unaffected by freezing, with saxitoxin remaining the most predominant (data not shown). On the other hand, high-temperature thermal processes transfer toxins from the meat to the coating liquid, altering the toxicological profile [15].

Determination of the Toxicity Profile

Each tissue was extracted using a slightly modified version of the official AOAC method 2011.02. For extraction of HCl (0.1N) for 3 minutes at 11,000 rpm. After each extraction, the resulting emulsion was boiled at 100° C. for 5 minutes, centrifuged at 5000 g for 20 minutes (Centurion K2015R, Centurion Scientific Ltd., Stoughton, West Sussex, UK) and pH adjusted to 2-4. A 1 mL aliquot was vortexed with 50 mL of 30% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and centrifuged at 9000 g for 5 min to deproteinize the sample. 70 liters of NaOH (1 M) was added to neutralize the solution. A 500 μL aliquot was filtered through a 0.2 μm 13 mm Clarinate nylon syringe filter (Agela Technologies, Torrence, CA, USA) and stored in an autosampler vial. A second 500 L aliquot was filtered through a 0.2 m nylon filter, stored in an autosampler vial, and hydrolyzed to convert residual sulfocarbamate toxins to carbohydrates, allowing accurate quantification of the most abundant toxins. . 2x or 10x with 0.1 N HCl to secure the sample. A Hitachi LaChrom Elite HPLC system equipped with a Hitachi FL detector L2485 (Hitachi High Technologies America Inc., Chatsworth, CA, USA) and two water pumps (Water Reagent Manager) and a 20 m Teflon coil (2nd ml) heated reactor. (Pickering Laboratories, Mountain View, Calif., USA) measured the most important PST toxins.


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Citation: Arch L (2023) Complexity and Microorganism Affection of Sedate Freshwater Fish Pathogens. J Fish Sci, Vol.17 No. 1: 104.