Journal of Universal Surgery

  • ISSN: 2254-6758
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Dr. Iyoob Ilyas Ilyas

Colorectal, General and Robotic Surgeon, HSHS Hospitals, Illinois, USA

  • Mini Review   
    Pacemaker Surgery and Artificial pacemaker
    Author(s): Dr. Iyoob Ilyas Ilyas*

    The contraction of cardiac muscle (heart muscle) in all animals is initiated by electrical impulses known as action potentials that in the heart are known as cardiac action potentials. The rate at which these impulses fire controls the rate of cardiac contraction, that is, the heart rate [1]. The cells that create these rhythmic impulses, setting the pace for blood pumping, are called pacemaker cells, and they directly control the heart rate. They make up the cardiac pacemaker, that is, the natural pacemaker of the heart [2]. In most humans, the highest concentration of pacemaker cells is in the sinoatrial (SA) node the natural and primary pacemaker, and the resultant rhythm is a sinus rhythm. Sometimes an ectopic pacemaker sets the pace, if the SA node is damaged or if the electrical conduction system of the heart has problems. Cardiac arrhythmias can cause heart block, in which the .. Read More»

    DOI: 10.36648/2254- 6758.22.10.57

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